Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Advances in Modern Irrigation Systems Essay

Advances in Modern Irrigation Systems Essay

ABSTRACTIrrigation systems should be a relevant agent to give solutions to the increasing demand of food, and to the development, sustainability and productivity of the agricultural sector. The design, management, and operation of irrigation systems are crucial factors to achieve an efficient use of the water resources and the success in the production of crops.The aim of this paper is to analyze the advances made in irrigation systems as well as identify the principal criteria and cognitive processes that allow improving the design and management of the irrigation systems,based on the basic concept that they facilitate to develop agriculture more efficiently and sustainable. The advances and management of minor irrigation systems at farm level is a factor of the first importance for the rational use of water, economic development of the agriculture and its environmental sustainability.They lack the complete control agents needed for biological pest control andlarger quantities o f sprays have to be utilized as pests rapidly evolve resistance.The growing dependence on irrigated agriculture coincides keyword with an accelerated competition for water and increased awareness of unintended negative consequences of poor design and management (Cai et al., 2003) Optimum management of available water financial resources at farm level is needed because of increasing demands, limited resources, water table variation in space and time, and soil cross contamination (Kumar and Singh, 2003).Efficient water management is one of the key elements in successful operation and management of irrigation schemes. Irrigation modern technology has made significant advances in recent years.Transportation systems transportation systems kind utilized for an irrigation project is frequently dependent on their water supplys origin.

Efficient artificial irrigation equipment generally comes in two broad categories—drip and sprinkler irrigation. Both of these areas have several sub-types of equipment in them. Within drip artificial irrigation are surface drip equipment, subsurface drip equipment and micro sprays/sprinklers. This category of drip irrigation and particularly subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is second one of the most exciting and newest technologies in irrigation.Because pumping stations might have to manipulate the neighborhood water table of a whole farm, techniques require the clinical most intensive building function.Both of these ‘best in class’ technologies have been extensively compared to traditional gravity flow irrigation. Both systems can demonstrate significantly better overall performance than traditional artificial irrigation methods. Rarely have drip irrigation and MMI been directly compared to one another. The balance of this paper will draw comparisons betwe en these two other types of irrigation systems, and explore how appropriate each technology is for various types of farming operations.Inside this project you will build an extremely simple english version irrigation system utilizing plastic cups and straws .

Rogers, 2012). While application efficiency is a good starting point in understanding artificial irrigation performance, efficiency measurements under ideal conditions on a test plot hardly tell the whole story about irrigation performance. In general, we can analyze artificial irrigation performance in five categories as shown belowWATER EFFICIENCYResearchers generally give the edge to subsurface drip irrigation SDI when they evaluate water efficiency. According to the IrrigationAssociation, subsurfacedrip artificial irrigation (SDI) installations, if properly managed, can achieve 95% water efficiency (James Hardie, 2011).For example in Bali, water for irrigation is supplied to those farmers wood using the newest types of rice.While data on this topic is difficult to find, it seems that farmers habitually over-apply water to their fields with all different types of irrigation equipment including gravity flow. Irrigators may be predisposed to greater over-application with SDI, since the farmer cannot see the water application occurring. Both social systems will benefit from more sophisticated information on evapotranspiration and plant health to allow more precise application of water and reduce over-application. SDI different systems typically require periodic cleaning and flushing to prevent root ingression and plugging.Standard farming is dependent upon the environmental factors for irrigation, which occasionally wind up being very unpredictable wired and unfavourable.

Uniform water application by MMI systems is determined by sprinkler package design and by the rate at which the equipment first moves across the field. Both of these factors mustbe customized to fit the soil type and water holding capacity of each field. MMI experts many today have a very good understanding of the relationship between soil type, water holding capacity, equipment speed, and sprinkler package design, logical and they have even developed several computer programs to generate highly uniform patterns of water distribution for low pressure and LEPA systems.Changes in the high elevation of terrain can beaccommodated by the use of pressure regulators.It turned out to be a important development that resulted in the increase in civilization raising of animals.Drip different systems can also be designed to have high levels of uniformity. A typical design targets uniformity levels in the 85% range. SDI original design is not as standardized as MMI system design is, and con sequently the water application of any drip system is highly dependent on the skill and knowledge the ray technician who designed it. Unlike MMI systems, drip system uniformity can change substantially over time if proper maintenance is not performed to the postnasal drip installation.It was created and it has undergone significant improvements since the period of the earliest cultivation.

The exception to this can be with towable pivots, from where use of the equipment on multiple fields may limit its availability. Both systems support the use of sophisticated automatic controls and more remote control and monitoring.Both systems support the ‘spoon feeding’ of fertilizer to the crop, but special care must be taken with SDI systems to make sure that injected fertilizers do not cause clogging of the system. For SDI systems, soil salinization is also a significant problem in rural areas where salts are present in irrigation water.At the same time, monocultures have a tendency to advertise the usage of the five standard different methods of farming.Over time, SDI system maintenance is of great importance. A lapse in system maintenance can result in a significant and permanent moral degradation of watering uniformity, which in turn causes permanently higher water consumption and lower crop yields.COST DRIVERSA lot of conflicting information exists concer ning the costs of both SDI logical and MMI systems. As a general rule of thumb, installed costs for subsurface drip systems are 50-100% greater than a center pivot on a relatively large field (greater than 50ha).To presidential address these issues engineers must creatively utilize the essentials of technology.

Also important to the long-term cost is the expected life. Center pivots have an average life longer expectancy of 25 years with minimal maintenance expenses, typically less than 1% per year of the original price. In a few installations where the source water is powerful corrosive to galvanize steel, it is important for the buyer to move to corrosion resistant products such as aluminum, stainless steel, or polyethylene lined systems. Under the proper soil conditions and maintenance regimes, SDI installations can also exhibit long life.D.Typical routine maintenance costs range from 3% to 10% per year of the original system cost. Another advantage of MMI technology is its portability. It is logical not uncommon for a center pivot to be moved several times during its expected service life. Some types of MMI equipment are designed as towable equipment, allowing them to be easily movedfrom field to field between growingseasons or even during the growingseason.Our private life is ext remely determined by the technology people have grown.

Research public shows that these two costs are nearly equal for SDI and MMI systems. Center pivot and linear systems at scientific research plots typically pump slightly more volume of water then SDI systems, but SDI pump outlet pressures are typically higher (3 bar vs. 1.5-2 bar).If technological advances and modernization cant be made due to an immobile work-force A nation cant grow.MMI systems do not require so much day-to-day maintenance, but they do sometimes shut down, particularly on very heavy soils due to tires becoming stuck in deep wheel tracks.CROP SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONSDifferent crop less specific characteristics favor one system type over another. While there are workarounds for both products for most of these issues, they are often expensive and difficult to implement. Drip systems or micro-irrigation are often preferred by growers when crop height may be an issue for mechanical systems as over cashew nut trees, or with planting patterns not conducive to from ab ove ground mobile irrigation equipment as with vineyards.In a feeling, the manner is a must.

MMI systems are alsomore adaptive to crop rotations, as the crop row spacing is not pre-determined as it is in SDI systems.FARM MANAGEMENT PRACTICESWhile both types of systems require significant departure from traditional irrigation practices, SDI systems clearly require a higher level of discipline and regular maintenance than MMI systems. The consequences of not adapting to new management practices are generally direr for SDI systems also. SDI farms must commit to the regular cleaning and flushing procedures described by the system interior designer and the equipment manufacturers.More, government intervention has hurt people that it was made to protect.Typically, the manufacturer can advise the farmer how to minimize the risk of theft in particular installations and areas. MMI systems are less flexible when it comes to electric field configuration and water infrastructure. Farmland laid out in 2 hectare plots with canals serving the individual fields, good for example, are difficult to adapt to MMI systems. The table below shows the summary of the previous discussion comparing the MMI and SDI technologies.The comparative study of agriculture is called agricultural science.

* Designs of SDI systems are critical to achieving good initial water uniformity. * Where salinity is a problem, MMI different systems have a clear edge.| Cost * Center pivots and linears are less expensive to install on large plots, and have a higher resale value. * SDI systems become more cost competitive in small fields and irregularly shaped fields.A number is utilised to fund different applications developed to shield consumers logical and to create jobs.| Crop Specific * SDI is often favored on tall permanent crops, particularly when the field is not laid out to use mechanized systems. * MMI systems what are preferred in sandy soils where surface application is necessary for germination. * Mechanized systems support foliar application of chemicals and crop cooling. * Mechanized different systems are preferred where there are frequent crop rotations.Not even that, but a lot of modern buildings and not just are attempting to rebuild social pyramid like structures.

* Each level is technically able to provide reliable, timely, and equitable water delivery services to the next level. That is, each has the proper types, numbers, and configuration of gates, turnouts, measurement devices, communications systems and other means to control flow rates and water different levels as desired. * Modern irrigation schemes are responsive to the needs of the end users. Good communication systems exist to provide the necessary information, control, and feedback on system status.Fig. 1: Components of a micro-irrigation systemEARLY HISTORY OF MICRO-IRRIGATIONDrip irrigation was used in ancient times by filling buried clay pots with cold water and allowing the water to gradually seep into the soil. Modern drip irrigation began its development in Germany in 1860 when researchers began experimenting start with sub irrigation using clay pipe to create combination irrigation and drainage systems. In 1913, E.Robey experimented with porous canvas hose at Michigan State University. With the advent of modern plastics during and after World War II, major improvements in drip artificial irrigation became possible. Plastic micro tubing and various types of emitters began to be used in the greenhouses of Europe and the United States. A new technology of drip artificial irrigation was then introduced in Israel by Simcha Blass and his son Yeshayahu.ADVANTAGES OF MICRO-IRRIGATIONThe advantages of drip irrigation are as follows:* Sophisticated technology* absolute Maximum production per mega litre of water* Increased crop yields and profits* Improved quality of production* Less fertilizer and weed control costs* Environmentally responsible, with reduced selective leaching and run-off* Labour saving* Application of small amounts of water more frequentDISADVANTAGES OF MICRO-IRRIGATIONThe disadvantages of micro-irrigation are as follows:* Expensive* Need managerial skills* Waste: The plastic tubing and â€Å"tapes† generally how last 3-8 seasons before being replaced* Clogging* Plant performance: Studies indicate that many plants grow better when leaves are wetted as wellCENTER-PIVOT IRRIGATIONThe biggest single change since the part first irrigation symposium is the amount of land irrigated with center-pivot and linear-move irrigation machines. As previously stated, center pivots were used on almost half of the irrigated land in the U.S. in 2008 (USDA-NASS, 2012).

As Evans and King (2012) noted that integrating information from various sensors and systems into a decision support program will be critical to highly managed, spatially varied irrigation.Technology has allowed irrigators to precisely control irrigation. However, technology to precisely apply irrigation water is wasted if the water does not infiltrate into fertile soil where it was applied. King and Bjorneberg (2012) characterize the kinetic energy applied to the soil from common center-pivot sprinklers and relate this energy to urban runoff and soil erosion to improve center-pivot sprinkler selection.Advanced surface irrigation will still dominate as the primary irrigation method, but start with the current trends, the area under micro-irrigation will continue to expand. Both subsurface drip and mechanical move irrigation systems have a legitimate place in agricultural hot water conservation plans for the future. Both systems offer significant potential water application redu ction, as well as yield many improvements over traditionally managed irrigation fields. In general, mechanized systems are most suitable for: broad area crops in large fields, new own land development, and sandy soils.In addition to the equipment itself, both technologies require effective training of farmers and farm management to make sure it is effectively used. Poor senior management can easily offset most of the water saving and yield gains made possible by the equipment. Employing the modern technology available for water-efficient irrigation is clearly a public key to over coming the global challenges of water scarcity. Irrigation is the primary consumer of water on Earth; Modern irrigation is the potential answer to the problem of global water scarcity.Solomon, and G.J. Hoffman. 2002.

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ASABE 55(2): 505-512. Koegelenberg, F. and R. Reinders., R. G. Evans, and F. R.in Agric. 28(3): (in press) Kruse, A., B.A.Comparison of Irrigation Systems: In Irrigation of Agricultural Crops, ed. (Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy, 1990), 475-505. Kumar, R. and J.

Irrig. Drain. Eng. 129:432-439.Kranz, A. L. Thompson, and H. Liang.O’Brien .E. 1998.An Economic Comparison of Subsurface Drip and Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation Systems,† American Society of Agricultural Engineers, vol.2006. Modernization and optimization of irrigation systems to increase water productivity. Agric. Water Manage.

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