Saturday, August 31, 2019

Great Gatsby and the American Dream

The Great Gatsby and the American Dream There is really no set definition of what the American Dream is, everyone has different views on what they see it as. The main idea of the American Dream is pretty much making it big and being successful in life, having everything you need, wealth, prosperity, love and happiness. Jay Gatsby portrays the American Dream in some senses but not to its full potential.Throughout the novel The Great Gatsby the American Dream isn’t shown in its positive light but, more of the opposite of that: more of the downfall or failure of it. Everyone wanted to be living the American Dream – the pursuit of happiness in life. In the 1920’s instead of going for things that brought happiness everyone seemed to revolve around money, wealth, and power. Instead of finding happiness with what they had they were all trying to attain money and power and believed this would lead to happiness.If they had all that already they took it all for granted and didn’t see everything that they had right there in front of them. Although it may have seemed someone had it all on the outside, once you really knew the person you could see that they weren’t living the best life and weren’t that much better than anyone else. The American Dream took a lot to actually achieve and no one really lived the actual dream because of many reasons but they were living some aspects of it.The three main characters fail to pursue the American Dream to its entirety – for Gatsby he tried to be something he wasn’t only so he could get Daisy and love, without this he was nothing; for Daisy it was because of greed she lived for money and social status which got in the way of her happiness and being with who she really loved; and for Tom his money gets in the way of morals and he took everything he had in front of him for granted. Jay Gatsby went from nothing to something to try to win over Daisy.His American Dream wasn’t a bout having material things, although it involved having to get them, instead it was trying to get the love of Daisy. Earlier in his life when he first fell in love with Daisy he was a poor man and Daisy didn’t want that at all. Due to Gatsby’s low social standing she wouldn’t be with him. Gatsby wanted a better life and he thought he could do it if he put his mind to it, which is also a part of the American Dream. Eventually he got money and became rich but he did this through illegal methods.This is the complete opposite of what the American Dream is because it’s supposed to be achieved through good virtue and hard work. He threw extravagant parties only to try and get close to Daisy, hoping that she would show up to them, but he himself never actually attended his parties. He wasn’t living a very great life as it seemed to everyone else, it was all a lie. The only thing that gave his life meaning was Daisy and that was the one thing he couldnâ⠂¬â„¢t have.She only came back to Gatsby after Gatsby attained his millions and was part of the high social class, but his life still wasn’t very stable. This shows that she let wealth get in the way of her love. Daisy loved Gatsby but because of the fact that there was really no stability in his life she didn’t feel comfortable with it and wouldn’t leave Tom for him. She was after the money and because Tom was settled down she decided to stay with him where it was safe. Greed and the fact that money took priority over everything with her was what held her back from happiness and living the American Dream.Tom was cheating on Daisy but she still stayed with him regardless just because she was comfortable with that lifestyle of being in the upper class and being seen as wealthy. Tom was a rich, handsome, successful man with a wife and family, and everything going for him, but instead of being happy with what he had he went and ruined others’ lives. He cheat ed on Daisy with Myrtle who was married to Wilson and destroyed their marriage. His money got in the way of his morals, family, and living the American Dream.Tom and Daisy somewhat represent the American Dream through their wealth and prosperity this was only a part of the dream not the whole picture because they still weren’t happy they just possessed the material items. The American Dream is contradicted, everyone wanted it but no one lived it for what it was supposed to be. Gatsby in the end sees himself as a failure when Daisy chooses Tom instead of him. The failure of Gatsby's hoped for life relates to the failure of the American Dream. Without his dream Gatsby has nothing – nothing to keep him going, no direction, and no purpose to live.He was unsatisfied with life and in the end, Wilson had killed him. This shows that Jay Gatsby’s American Dream didn’t go anywhere and wasn’t satisfied to its full extent although he attempted to succeed he fa iled. The extent of the novel The Great Gatsby representing the American Dream is more of showing that the American Dream isn’t always achieved and doesn’t always work out the way you want it to or think it should. The American Dream is hard to achieve and it seems as if it’s impossible for anyone to actually achieve every aspect of it, so it is just what it is, a dream.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Political context of The Great Gatsby

America during 1920s enjoyed a consummate historical period – so called the ‘Economic Boom'. Consequently, more and more people became wealthy. This resulted in dramatic changes in American social structure as there was a huge increase in the middle classes. People's obsession over their wealth had no limits. There was a big emphasis on individualism as the Republicans enjoyed widespread support due to their achievements. Perhaps this explains the attitude of the characters in the ‘Great Gatsby'. Gatsby's desire for wealth and individualism was certainly boosted by his feelings towards Daisy. Daisy Buchannan – who had a high rank in American society even before she got married, could not belong to Gatsby's world and their relationship in the light of this period of American history was seen as irrational. The gaps in American social structure were undoubtedly large, however Republican's idea of individualism allowed an access to higher rank in society. Characters' traits such as determination, adroitness and hard-work were heavily respected in US during that time. This explains Gatsby's struggle in achieving respected status and wealth. Perhaps, from a political point of view, Gatsby therefore could be seen as a model of a successful American during the ‘Economic Boom'. America – a great social and economic experiment, noble in motive and far-reaching in purpose. Herbert Hoover (1874 – 1964) – Republican president of USA Furthermore, the Americans' position during the 1920s made them think that they are infallible. Certainly, this resulted in racism and over – patriotic attitude. For example, Tom says that ‘Civilisation's going to pieces' referring to ‘The Rise of Colored Empires' and defines Americans as the ‘dominant race' (chapter I). This boundless confidence spread into different countries and the term of an ‘American Dream' (that is – a dream of a total achievement of wealth) became more and more popular. Ironically, America's ‘Economic Boom' was a direct consequence of the First World War when they isolated themselves and achieved a great deal of widespread wealth at the cost of the other suffering countries. In fact, the ‘Economic Boom' was mostly a result of a well-developed trade of military supplies with countries involved in war. Similarly, ‘The Valley of Ashes' (â€Å"a fantastic farm where ashes grow like wheat† – Chapter II) can be seen as the symbol of American's abusing of the lower social classes as the wealthy businessmen dump their ashes on the land belonging to lower ranks. Perhaps in this sense, Fitzgerald hints at his contempt of a Republican idea and despises the order in USA during that time. Therefore the ill-thought through American idea of desire for money descended from the ‘Economic Boom' in 1920s. Having said this, we are not surprised when Gatsby describes Daisy's voice as ‘full of money'. Wealth and competitiveness was considered as the norm because in early 20th century America such values had been seen as essential to become a politically correct ‘American'. To become politically correct one tended, or maybe preferred, to become blind to human suffering. It is best described by Nick that â€Å"Tom and Daisy – smashed up creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness†. Indeed, in this way, Tom and Daisy have managed to brutally achieve their ‘American Dream'.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Strategic Marketing Management of Nintendo Assignment

Strategic Marketing Management of Nintendo - Assignment Example Furthermore, members of this club have access to limited edition products that are not available to non members. Finally, the company sells video games that are segmented by games for Nintendo Wii, Wii U, DS and 3DS. Although majority of the games are sold through retailers, some are available for download on the company’s e-shop website. Current market/s including customer behavior issues, demand and trends The company uses differentiated positioning for its offerings. While the company has historically targeted the segment of gamers, it has recently shifted its attention to incorporate non-gamers. This segment comprises of families, women as well as individuals who are ‘not’ hard-core gamers. In other words, Nintendo now targets individuals who want quick-fix gaming solutions in addition to serious gamers (MaRS, 2012). This has been matched by a shift in the company’s value proposition which has evolved from the delivery of intensely realistic gaming expe riences to providing fun-filled family entertainment. The company soon realized the changing customer demographics and saw a large potential in the market for women and pensioners. As of 2010, Wii was presented by 90% of primary console female players (ESRB, 2010). Overall, women account for 40% of video game players (ESRB, 2010). This has opened up new markets for Nintendo, thereby reducing reliance on the market for hard-core gamers which has become highly competitive. While price and performance plays a key role in determining customer response to the company’s products, emotional attachment to the product is just as important in order to capture customer value. Furthermore, the company’s use... The researcher of this essay focuses on the analysis of the current business products and product lines that the Nintendo uses to gain benefits today. Nintendo seems to have used the latter with majority of its products carrying the â€Å"Nintendo† label. The product lines include the Nintendo Wii U, Wii, Nintendo 3DS as well as services such as Club Nintendo and Video Games. The Nintendo Wii comprises is a hardware – game box that is motion controlled and allows users to play games on it. The researcher presents tdifferent products of the company and states that the company also sells video games, that are segmented by games for Nintendo Wii, Wii U, DS and 3DS. Although majority of the games are sold through retailers, some are available for download on the company’s e-shop website. Current markets including customer behavior issues, demand and trends are later discussed in the essay. The researcher also describes how the Nintendo company uses differentiated pos itioning for its offerings, where price and performance plays a key role in determining customer response. Nintendo outsources its production, that is, it makes limited term contracts with various companies that manufacture its products in their factories. This is because the company had initiated a blue ocean strategy whereby it attempted at broadening its customer base. The researcher then concluds that Nintendo can capitalize on its core competency of being the pioneer in the video gaming industry - a competency which is both valuable and rare.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Negative Letter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Negative Letter - Essay Example Since the new policy entered operation, our company has introduced new changes regarding tour and travel services offered to our esteemed clients. Our target currently is families who would wish to enjoy our services. Besides this, we have as well introduced new fun-filled and carefree cruises services that are destined for the beautiful sunny. Not mentioning the exotic ports of call that removes stresses of everyday life from our guests will make my list incomplete. Notably, these changes have attracted more passengers than any other cruise in the world -nearly 4.4million passengers across the whole world. The interviews by our Cruise Week reveal that about 98 percent of our customers are contented with our services. The attached is the schedule for our cruise line starting the week of January 2015. We call for your understanding and promise to dedicate ourselves towards providing you the best quality of our services. I will inform you during the week of January 15 to help you plan special family tour packages that we do

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Make a research paper about two different types of application softare

Make a about two different types of application softare (exclude microsoft office softwares) - Research Paper Example Specifically, an application software provides the end-user with the capability to manipulate text, graphics, or even audio and video files. Different types of application software include Word Processing Software, Database Software, Spreadsheet Software, Multimedia Software, Presentation Software, Enterprise Software, Information Worker Software, Educational Software, Simulation Software, and Content Access Software. This paper will discuss specifically about Firefox and SAP, two application software that are widely used in their respective fields and industries. Firefox Firefox is a web browser application software that falls under the category of content access software. As its name implies, content access software allow users to access content with or without editing allowed (Bell 107). These kinds of software are primarily applied on platforms where a user is required to share content among a group of other users. Examples of content access applications are media players, web br owsers, and computer games. These software facilitate the access and use of digital content and allows the user to access and use these content with other users as well. Web browsers, specifically, are among the most widely used content access software as they allow people to request for, access, and even show information and yet many other applications through the internet (Miller, Vandome and McBrewster 10). As a web browser, Firefox provides users with access to information resources, which may be in the form of a web page, an image, a video, or some other content. According to founder Blake Ross, Firefox is an open source (i. e., free) web browser application that he created together with other developers because he wanted to minimize popup ads and other software applications that inflicted earlier web browsers (1). It descended from the Mozilla Application Suite, and features tabbed browsing, spell-checking, bookmarking, and downloading, aside from its basic web browser feature s (Gross 634). Most open-source software are usually plagued by their limited capabilities and applicable platforms. However, Firefox is able to run on a number of operating systems such as Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Currently, Firefox is the second leading web browser application next to Internet Explorer. SAP Software SAP, which stands for Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing, is an enterprise software used by many businesses today. Enterprise software respond to the needs of organizational processes and data flows (Bell 107). Enterprise software are meant to solve problems of the whole enterprise rather just of a specific department. Such systems are often costly and are thus available only to large scale enterprises. Moreover, these software are customized to fit the system of the entire business organization. As such, SAP is responsible for performing a number of departmental functions (oftentimes, the enterprise’s entire IT system is rooted on thi s software), for example, order processing, procurement, production scheduling, customer information management, and accounting (Oak). Thus, as an enterprise software, SAP is hosted on a number of servers and caters to a large number of users at the same time. This is usually done over a computer network, a feature that is in contrast with other lone-user application that runs on a user’s PC, catering to only one user at a time. It should likewise be noted that SAP is an ERP or

Monday, August 26, 2019

Public Law and the Rights of Individuals Research Paper

Public Law and the Rights of Individuals - Research Paper Example Individuals Rights Protection Five rights of individuals are outlined in the Constitution of Australia (Clark et al, 2010). The first and the most important right for every individual is the right to vote (Sec. 41). In terms of modern democracies, it is of great importance that every individual could realize his role as an active participant of a social life of the country. A right to vote underlines a civil significance of every individual. The second right outlined in the Constitution of Australia is â€Å"protection against acquisition of property on unjust terms† (Sec. 51 (xxxi)). To have a property and to assure safety and protection to it means personal safety and peace (McKnight, 2005). Section 116 is focused on the right of freedom of religion, which is beneficial for the citizens of Australia, but with respect to modern diversities of the society it would be relevant to take into account discrimination against sexual orientation and race (Willet, 2000; Sanders, 2002). The latter point is underlined in Section 117, which is focused on prohibition of discrimination basing on the place of residence. Section 80 considers the right of a trial to jury. With respect to individual’s rights protection, this point means a lot as well. It is of crucial importance for citizens to be aware of fair trial (Tazreiter, 2009; Hansen and Ainsworth, 2009). Still, individual’s rights are not properly taken into account in Australia. This can be illustrated by some restrictions of the common law (Morabito, 2003). For example, women and men are considered to have equal rights. Nevertheless, it is often claimed that women are prevented from been occupied in different professions in Australia (Harris and Twomey, 2008). Fortunately, starting from 70s, some legal Acts were issued directed on discrimination prevention on the basis of racial discrimination (1975), sex discrimination (1984), disability discrimination (1992) (Roht-Arriaza, 1995). Thus, we can cl aim that the main principle of individual’s rights protection is based on non-discrimination principles. Anti-discrimination laws are promoted in Australia. It is claimed that every complaint should be properly processed and mutual agreement on it should be reached either by means by peaceful negotiations or in the court. Still, there is a serious gap concerning individual’s rights protection, when discrimination occurs on the basis of sexual preferences, age, religion or other matters (Meyerson, 2009). Thus, Gelber (2002) claims: â€Å" human rights  law has `not engaged explicitly with religious traditions', in  the sense that human rights  principles tend to advocate freedom of religion, yet this freedom is controversial in  cases where a religious tradition denies plurality. Furthermore, many religious traditions evidence historical discrimination and intolerance† (Gelber, 2002).   Thus, it is relevant to introduce some changes in individualâ€℠¢s rights protection in Australia. This may concern a better protection of the rights of a child, or individual’s rights protection on the basis of concerns other than outlined in International Human Rights Protection. â€Å"Right to Wellbeing† may be considered as a rough draft as a child’s rights protection in Australia: â€Å"

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Enhancment of professional development and safe practice Essay

Enhancment of professional development and safe practice - Essay Example as an individual and a professional but the wider implications of having a mission in life, are much more meaningful and have widespread influence on his life. Reflection practices therefore, become important tool of self improvement. To facilitate personal and professional growth, it is not only essential to have identified goals but acquiring new knowledge and skills to improve professional expertise has also become a pre-requisite of the changing times. Reflective practices and exercise are important tools that are designed to add value to the over all personality of the so that they would be better able to meet the challenges of the time with equanimity and confidence. The art of effective communication is one of the most important ingredients of leadership. Reflective practices help to identify our shortcoming and promote wider understanding of the various methodologies to become more articulate and become familiar with the emerging new paradigms in the social dynamics. The reflective practices encourage confidence building so that they are better prepared to tackle critical situations and meet the challenges with more conviction and composure. It entails six steps of self evaluation practice for teaching and learning process that promotes personal and professional growth (Gibbs, 1988). The different steps are designed to provide an in-depth reflection on our actions that encourages us to look at our actions from the perspective of third person so that they (actions) could be evaluated and analyzed. The self analysis thus persuades one to improve and improvise our actions so that our performance outcome is improved, leading to professional growth with safe practice for oneself and others. This is the first step on Gibbs cycle and takes a look into one’s actions within the predefined situation. What happened? The whole episode that needs reflection is sequentially focused and all the facts as they happened are taken into account or recollected. This step

CRJ Research Assignment-4 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

CRJ Research -4 - Assignment Example If the research questions are formulated in this manner, then the results will be related to the hypothesis, and thus proving the validity of this research study. Ultimately, I will prove that my research is valid by ensuring that the research instrument truly measures the correlation between wealthy families and kidnappings (Kaplan, 2004). Reliability of this research will be established quantitatively this will be through ensuring that the quantity of data will be measurable, accurate and consistent. For instance, the sample population will contain a preferable number of respondents who fit the desired characteristics of this research. Reliability of this research will also be established through following up the respondents if clarification for any information is needed (Kaplan, 2004). The following are factors are likely to create problems with either validity or reliability of this research. Firstly, lack of consistency of data provided by the respondents. Secondly, a data-collecting tool that is inaccurate and untrue, in that it lacks the capability of giving repeatable results. Thirdly, the idea of including respondents in the research study who do not have the desired characteristics of the sampling frame (Kaplan,

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Samsung electronic corporate governance practices Essay

Samsung electronic corporate governance practices - Essay Example During the collapse of large corporations during (2001-2002), fraud, embezzlement of funds were notably blamed for this phenomenon (2013 Samsung Electronics Annual Report 10). Today, some of the leading companies such as Samsung have managed to create a monumental corporate governance policy. Sadly, many people have little knowledge on the significance of company corporate governance. This paper will explore Samsung financial reports, the audit committee, board of directors and their roles in order to enhance in-depth understanding of the corporate governance. Besides, a historical review of the company under scrutiny will enhance a better reflection of the milestone that has led to the development of concrete policy. Samsung Company came into existence around 1938 after the first Samsung General stores opened its doors. It is a company dealing with three-tire electronics portfolio, namely electronics, mobile devices and information technology. It is a company that has defined its position within a competitive and dynamic electronic industry over a few decades. During its inception, the company objectives included provision of world-class electronic devices that will improve access to information. Today, the company boost of monumental corporate governance that has led to investment in advance technology and enormous proceeds. By 2013, the company has raised its shares to 130 million that translated to 10% growth rate from the previous year. Today, the company faces vulnerability to litigation due to patent suits. Notably, Apple sued Samsung in 2012 in numerous country, including U.S, Japan, China among other big consumers (2013 Samsung Electronics Annual Report 12). In addition, the company faces a high capital requirement occasioned by unpredictable shift in technology and customers change in taste and preference. Besides, there are new entrants in the market coupled with huge tax levies and international customs poses uncertainty in future profits

Friday, August 23, 2019

Evidential Markers in English The Word Apparently Assignment

Evidential Markers in English The Word Apparently - Assignment Example The word apparently is representative of an act of cognition because it demonstrates the speaker’s state of mind and conveys what he or she thinks, believes or even guesses based on information received or observed indirectly. As Briton (1996) explains, words demonstrating an act of cognition are generally associated with a mental construction of â€Å"evidential markers from verbs of cognition† which are â€Å"analogous to the development of hearsay, sensory, and inferential evidential from verbs of perception† which mean â€Å"hear, see, and feel† (p. 243). Therefore the word apparently is a construction of information observed by the speaker. The speaker is not conveying infinitive information, but rather an information that is not only indirect but open to challenge. From a cognition perspective, there is always the possibility that the speaker is misinformed or has erroneously interpreted information observed or overheard. The mode of knowing is obvious in the use of the word apparently. Implicitly, the speaker is not conveying direct knowledge of a fact but rather an inference is drawn from information. The use of the word apparently is demonstrative of the speaker’s unwillingness to commit to a definitive conclusion but rather a willingness to offer an interpretation or perception of the information received or observed (Brinton, 1996). The speaker limits the information to an inferential form and is thus manifesting a degree of uncertainty by using the word apparently and failing to assert unequivocally that the information observed or received can be conclusively stated. Faller (2002) describes what is known as the reportative marker. The reportative marker is relevant to the word apparently because it offers a contradictory stance on the part of the speaker.  

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Taking Control of Obesity Essay Example for Free

Taking Control of Obesity Essay What is being done about childhood obesity and how could parents improve good healthy habits? Parents should be mindful of the foods children eat and exercise routines. Childhood obesity is often a result of a lack of nutrition, exercise, and self control. Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in the United States. Parents are role models and should demonstrate healthy eating habits, exercise routines, positive self-esteem and teach long-term weight control to help maintain a healthy weight and good habits that will prevent obesity. Developing good eating habits as a child can reduce the risk of one becoming obese. Parents have control of what children eat, beginning at birth. Children need to eat fresh fruit, vegetables, fat free and low fat dairy products, whole grains, and seafood. To maintain good health one has to maintain a healthy body weight and meet nutrition requirements. Preparing home cooked meals is the best way to demonstrate healthy eating habits and portion control. Eating together at the dinner table give parents a chance to discuss why it is important to eat healthy and what healthy foods are. That gives the children an opportunity to ask questions and get answers. At snack time, parents should offer children snacks that are not loaded with sugar and fat. Taking children to grocery shopping is a good way to explain what healthy foods are and healthy eating habits. Therefore, if parents teach children how to make good food choices that are a positive start too healthy eating. Exercising regularly is vital in a child’s life. Overweight children are at risk of heart disease, joint problems, sleep apnea, diabetes and possibly long-term health problems. Adding exercise in a child’s lifestyle is as important as adding healthy foods. Therefore, when a child get accustom to that lifestyle they can benefit from it. They can lose weight and live a healthier and long life. Parents have to incorporate exercise into the children lives. They must encourage the children to go outside and play, instead of watching television and playing video games. Parents have to encourage children to play sports in school and during the summer, so they can be physically active all year. However, parents have to provide the right nutrition that will provide growth and energy for physical activities. In addition, some basic planning that includes sports; outside activities and many calories, being burn is a good way to maintain a healthy weight. Self-esteem plays a big part in a child’s mental health. Peers tease children and it tends to lower that child’s self-esteem and make them feel like they have no worth. That can cause a child to develop an eating disorder and become withdrawn from others. Therefore, the parent has to figure out a way to promote positive self-esteem. Identify and redirect the child’s inaccurate beliefs is a start to promoting positive self-esteem. Be a positive role model, exercise and eat healthy with them. The most important thing to do is let the child know they are love, no matter what the situation. Obesity affects a child’s self-esteem, because of what they hear in society. Parents have to speak up on behalf of the children, that being overweight is unacceptable. Even though, being overweight is unhealthy, but tearing down a child’s self-esteem is also unhealthy. Parents need to build up the child’s self-esteem by showing them eating healthy and exercise can help maintain a healthy weight. When the children and parents do these things together, the children will feel better mentally and physically, knowing that a healthy lifestyle makes a happy child. Parents should also let the children know that everyone is different and being overweight do not make one any less of a person. In order for children to control, their weight long-term is to continue what the parents has taught them about good eating habits, exercise, and positive self-esteem into their adulthood. The children need to maintain a healthy lifestyle and focus on the right things to do. The children need to keep healthy foods in the pantry and refrigerator. Always start the day with a good breakfast, which increases the metabolism. Reduce unhealthy snacking, especially before lying down. Exercise at least thirty minutes to an hour a day. Always get a good night sleep at least six to eight hours a night. Always keep a positive attitude and do not punish or reward oneself with food. Therefore, if the parents instill these good healthy habits into a child, they will continue to do these healthy habits as adults. In conclusion, helping obese children lose the extra pounds requires a change in their lifestyles. Parents should work closely with the children to teach them about healthy food choices.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Learning Organization: Literature Review

Learning Organization: Literature Review Introduction of learning organization A learning organization is an organization that is continually expanding its capacity to create its future. For such an organization, it is not enough to merely survive. Survival learning or what is more often termed adaptive learning is important indeed it is necessary. But for a learning organization adapting learning must be joined by generative learning learning that enhances our capacity to create. Learning organization where people continually expand their capacity to create the result they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free and where people are continually learning to see the whole to gather. Types of learning Level 1:- learning facts, knowledge, processes and know situation procedures apply to know where changes are minor. Level 2:- learning new job skills that are transferable to other situations applies to new situations where existing responses need to be changed bringing in outside expertise is a useful tool here. Leel 3:- learning to adopt-applies to more dynamic situation where the solution need developing experimentation and deriving lessons from success and failure is the mode of learning here. Level 4:- learning to learn-Is about innovation and creativity, designing the future rather than merely adapting to it. This is where assumptions are challenged and knowledge is reframed. Characteristic of a learning organization Learning culture:- An organizational climate that natures learning. There is a strong similarity with those characteristic associated with innovation. Processes:- processes that encourage interaction across boundaries. These are infrastructure, development and management processes, as opposed to business operational processes. Tools and techniques:- method that aid individual and group learning, such as creativity and problem solving techniques. Skills and motivation:- to learn and adapt. The art and practice of the learning organization and the fifth discipline field book: strategies and tools for building ad earning organization explain that there are five disciplines, which must be mustered when introducing such as organization. Systems thinking:- the ability to see the big picture and to distinguish patterns instead of conceptualizing change as isolated event systems thinking needs the other four shift from being unconnected to interconnect to the whole and from blaming our problems on something external to a realization that how we operate our actions can create problems. Personal mastery:- begins by becoming committed to lifelong learning and is the spiritual cornerstone of a learning organization. Personal mastery involves being more realistic, focusing on becoming the personal possible and to strive for a sense of commitment and excitement in our careers to facilitate realization of potential. Mental models:- they must be managed because they do prevent new and powerful insights and organizational practices from becoming implemented. The process begins with self reflection, unearthing deeply held belief structure and generalizations and understand how they dramatically influence the way we operate in our own lives. Until there is realization and focus on openness, real change can never be implementation. Building shared vision:- visions cannot be dictated because it begins with the personal visions of individual employees, who may not agree with the leaders visions what is needed is a genuine visions that elicits commitment in good times and bad and has the power to bind an organization together. Team learning:- is important because currently, modern organization operate on the basis of teamwork, which means that organization cannot learn if team members do not come together and learn. It is a process of developing the ability to create desired results, to have a goal in mind and work together to attain it. Review of literature The literature  I reviewed about learning organization fell in to these categories: The founders Real world definitions and critiques Promoting continuous improvement, innovation, stakeholder collaboration Organization learning and organizational outcomes Todays approaches for building organization learning The founders Where did the concept of a learning organization that helped create and disseminate this concept. In literature and conversation with practitioners the authors whose names came up again and again as founders of sorts of this approaches are peter senge, chris aggris, Donald schon and marguret wheatly also highlighted in this section is shana ratners description of the fundamental shift in learning approaches in the latter half of the 20th century has given rise to exiting new field like organizational learning. Peter senga: peter senga is considered by most to be the father of organizational learning senga is a director at innovation associates a Cambridge consulting firm and advises government and educational leader in centre of global changes like South Africa. Sengas massage of growth and prosperity holds strong appeal for todays business leaders. This research centre at MIT the centre for organizational learning started in 1990 has 18 corporate sponsors, included AT and T, ford, Motorola and feudal express. Each contributes $80,000 a year to create learning organization pilot programme with the help of senga and his colleagues. Senga created something new and powerful by putting them together. Unfortunately, at first glance these ideas can seem ambiguous. As a result only a small percentage of the huge number of people who bought the book has read it and only a small percentage of those have carried out its ideas. To make the learning more accessible to seasoned managers, senga and several co-consultants published. The fifth discipline field book, hands-on work. The field book explains that anyone who wants to be the part of a learning organization must first go through a personal change, senga kleines etal 1994. This means that if some members of the group like to tell people what to do and are to busy to listen they must be willing to change themselves. Senga and his colleagues consult with organizations, where they elaborate set of personal awareness exercise with names like dialogues, the container and the ladder of influence. Chris argyris:- Chris argyris is also lauded for disseminating pioneering ideas about now learning can improve organizational development success. He is probably known for distinguish between learning that challenges the status quo, called singe loop learning. Double loop learning depends on the internal commitment by employees to seek transparency and personal responsibility in the work place for single loop learning, people are good programmed to believe that transparency and truth are good ideas, but only when they are not threatening, he says in this article good communication that blocks learning argyris says that the new but now familiar techniques of corporate communication like focus groups, surveys, management by walking around, can block organization learning even as they help solve certain kinds of problems. These techniques, he explains, promote defensive behaviour by encouraging employees to believe that their proper role is to criticize management while the proper role of management is to take action and fix whatever is wrong. He recommends that managers challenge employees to think constantly and creatively about the needs of organizational. By applying these ideas to individuals or group performance reviews, managers can cr eate an incentive for employees to increase their commitment to continuous non-routine learning and for implementing strategy. Donald A. Section For about 40 years, don schon wrote about and consulted in the field of organizational learning many of schons many schons insights, though not distinguished in the management literature, continue to have a significant on the conceptualization of organizational learning. Schons work can be organized in the four themes:(a)his concept of inquiry as reflection in action.(b)constructing a learning dialectic in organization (c)the practice of learning how to learn and(d)his commitment a new educational paradigm that teaches practitioner how to reflect in action. When compared to the current literature on organizational learning, schons deep integration of knowing and doing can be seen as pioneering work. Must literature on organizational learning over time. According to schons approach, action and reflection should occur at the same time so that learning is necessarily embodied in concrete situation. Some comment that schon does not emphasize how rare it is for persons to solicit feedback about mismatches between their principles and their actions. the fact that such learning may be extraordinarily useful. Margaret whitely: Margaret Whitleys book leadership and the new science learning about organization from an orderly universe has been recognized as introducing a new paradigm for organizational development that involves reintegration of society. (Dennard 1996), (Brown 1993). Wheatley offers these are ideas:- Everything is a constant process of discovery and creating. Life uses messes to get well ordered solutions. Life is intent on finding what works, not what is right. Life creates more possibilities as it engages with opportunities. Life is attracted to order. Life organizes around identity. Everything participates in the creation and evolution of its neighbours. Reflecting on her Wheatley vividly demonstrates how organization is living entities and that learning and change strengthen their structure and their communities. Shana rather an old and new answer to how we learn:-Shana rashers 1997 emerging issues in learning communities offers an insightful description of the fundamental shift in learning approaches in the latter half on the 20th century that is giving rise to existing new field such as learning, collaborative learning and organizational learning. This shift, from thinking of learning as a transaction to learning as a process. This shift eliminates the separation of teacher from student and replaces it with dialogue between teacher and student to encourage joint responsibility for learning and growth. (burkey 1993). Old and new answers to how we learn (ratner 1997) Old answer New answer Knowledge is thing that is transferred from one person to another. Knowledge is objective and certain. Learners receive knowledge. We all learn in the same way. Knowledge is a relationship between the knower and the known: knowledge is created through this relationship. Knowledge is subjective and provisional. Learners create knowledge. There are many different learning styles. LEARNING ORGANIZATION SOUTH WEST ARLINE GOOGLE 3M SOUTH WEST AIRLINE :- Background Southwest Airlines has built its culture and its reputation inside out. Its value a happy workforce, and believes that its 3200 employees will keep customer come back. Since its beginning as a small, three jet airlines, southwest leadership, including co- founder and current board chairman Herbert D. Kelleher and President colleen Barrett, has relied on company values concern, respect and caring for employees and customer. Company Consider Learning Organisation because of following reason:- Company must provide the level of knowledge and information that allows the employees to act like owners. Southwest Airlines provides daily news updates via internet; the CEO records a weekly telephone message for all the employees and the company communicates detailed financial information called knowing the score on quarterly earnings. More than 14% of outstanding shares of stock are held by southwest employees. Southwest communicates with employees everyday through news on their internet every week through a telephone news line, every month with 32 page magazine, every week quarter through the financial knowing the score message very year through a series of town hall meetings. Communicators must nature their corporate culture so that employees understand how their behaviour contributes how their organisation is judged. In its monthly news letter LUV Lines, southwest features employees who have been nominated by their peers for Wining Spirit recognition. These outstanding employees are modelling the type of behaviour that result in a remarkable vs ordinary experience for a customer or follow employees. Learning excellence: Southwest Airline approach A bias for action Close to customer Autonomy and entrepreneurship Productivity through people. Hands on value driven Stick to the knitting Simple from lean staff Simultaneous loose tight properties Southwest Airlines one of the most successful airlines n the low cost market segment is the role model for many other low cost airlines. Like Ryan air and easy set. Five specific elements of southwest Airline are strategy, structure, processes and reward. Processes: Southwest Airlines has an open door tradition. Herb Kelleher is known to stay in the bar until four in the morning with a mechanic to hear what he is got to say. Employees are stimulated to come up with ideas and there receive all the necessary support from their management to try out different things. The on board safety demonstration, which has been turned into a complete act to attain the attention of passengers. Rewards-besides the usual package of secondary employment benefits, like free airline tickets, profit sharing etc. employees of the month election. South west airline has another usual way to pay attention to their work force .In the lobby of SWA corporate headquarter at Dallas love field airport .there is a big port falling messy The people of SWA are the creator of what we have become and what we will be. Our people transformed an idea into a legend .that legend will continue to grow only so long as it is nourished. People-SWA has its own university for people where 25000 new employees are trained every year .the selection criteria for recruitment are much more based on attitude than on knowledge. As a result SWA is now regarded as friend list airline in us. The three important factors-these are those factor that show how SWA manager to keep the spirit high The relationship between management and workforce. The training at university for people decreases hierarchical thinking. Herb Kelleher, one of the founder of SWA and an important leader for the company. His vision, humour and hand on mentality are very inspiring for the entire employee in SWA. Suggestion to SWA Give reward also in the form of profit sharing, give bonus and package plan etc. .It also motivate the employees After studying the whole organisation I come to know that in motivational problem are there so company should have good leadership After herb SWA has not a leader same like him so company should try to make a leader as him which helps the company a lot. Reason of Google as learning organisation- Google is the most goggled company in business today. Just as IBM coca-cola were the best companies in youth and everyone wants to pattern them after Google now. First, it is clear from our research that Google is relying heavily on innovation to grow. The companies hire the best brightest and have created a work environment which is the envy of any generation X and Y employee. Government cafeterias, flexible working conditions and the 20% policy which enable each and every employee to spend up to one day per week working on a special and innovative project of their own. Few companies today can afford to lavish such luxuries on every employee. Second, the company has also built a culture of product innovation. Dozens of new products services are available from Google today engineers are encouraged to continuously newones.engineers who finds bugs in others engineers products are encouraged to check out the code line and suggest a fix. While most of the new products from Google never became market leader, some do. Google finance, Goggle maps Gmail are all products which entered the market with strong entrenched compitition.through innovation and strong execution each of these products have take on tremendous market share in a short part and when the company sees a tremendous market opportunity to enter through acquision. Google takes the plunge(YouTube blogger) Following are the points that consider Google as learning organisation very truly- Greater Motivation The Workforce Is More Flexible. People Are More Creative. Improved Social Interaction. Knowledge Sharing. Interdependency The Breakdown of Traditional Communication Barriers. Customer Relation. Information Resources Innovation Creativity Suggestions- Google should level out the workload Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology that serves you people processes Make decision slowly by consensus through considering all the option and implementing the decision rapidly. Introduction to 3M- At 3M, we pair imaginative thinking with science-based technology to create globally-renowned products. We lead scores of markets: health care, safety, office products, and transportation to name a few. So whats our secret? Its simple: We approach real-world problems with our array of technologies to satisfy customers. Leading this process are some of the worlds best and brightest employees who share a commitment to innovation and excellence Learning environment of 3M 3M is a learning organisation committed to continuous improvement in both the companys result each individuals performance. A learning environment is more than a comprehensive training program. It is a philosophy that says that learning is a part of every employees job every day. Continuous learning gives all employees greater opportunity to realize their potential .in a learning environment the role of the employee is to be a continuous learner, the role of the manager is to reinforce learning model learning behaviour and the role of the company is to create system that allow cross functional knowledge sharing throughout the organisation. 3M supports learning through on the job training, traditional class room setting, online learning functional communication of practice .each employee is responsible for his or her individual growth plan. The goal of our commitment to learning is engaged employee who understand how their action contribute to 3Ms success make decision as if they owned the business. Findings:- The reward system as a learning frame has high effect on learning environment according to employees. There is an equity/balance between efforts and rewards. In SWA organisation new employees are trained every year. In SWA organisation selection criteria for recruitment are much more based on attitude than on knowledge. In Google organization monetary or other incentives are given to employees in order to increase their motivation level. In 3M organization and the relation between employees and managers is good. Employees feel like they work in safe environment. Conclusion After study the whole concept of organisation we learn many things regarding learning organisation. Learning organisation is very wider concept and learning helps organisation to achieve success and create new things. Learning organisation innovate things to world. In this assignment I also study learning organisation like SWA Google. They are the main example of learning organisation these companies gives ideas products. Because of their learning behaviour these companies get success and the growth rate of learning organisation never down because they change their policies when requires. It is good for companies so according to me every company became learning organisation .it is good for economy as well as companies and we get innovative things.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Security information and event management

Security information and event management Introduction: Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) automates incident identification and resolution based on built in business rules to help improve compliance and alert staff to critical intrusions. IT audits, standards and regulatory requirements have now become an important part of most enterprises day-to-day responsibilities. As part of that burden, organizations are spending significant time and energy scrutinizing their security and event logs to track which systems have been accessed, by whom, what activity took place and whether it was appropriate. Organizations are increasingly looking towards data-driven automation to help ease the burden. As a result, the SIEM has taken form and has provided focused solutions to the problem. The security information and event management market is driven by an extremely increasing need for customers to meet compliance requirements as well as continued need for real-time awareness of external and internal threats. Customers need to analyze sec urity event data in real time (for threat management) and to analyze and report on log data and primarily this has made security information and event management market more demanding. The market remains fragmented, with no dominant vendor. This report entitled Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) Solutions gives a clear view of the SIEM solutions and whether they can help to improve intrusion detection and response. Following this introduction is the background section which deeply analyzes the evolution of the SIEM, its architecture, its relationship with the log management and the need for SIEM products. In the analysis section, I have analyzed the SIEM functions in detail along with real world examples. Finally the conclusion section summarizes the paper. Background: What is SIEM? Security Information and Event Management solutions are a combination of two different products namely, SIM (security information management) and SEM (security event management). SIEM technology provides real-time analysis of security alerts generated by network hardware and applications. The objective of SIEM is to help companies respond to attacks faster and to organize mountains of log data. SIEM solutions come as software, appliances or managed services. Increasingly, SIEM solutions are being used to log security data and generate reports for compliance purposes. Though Security Information and Event Management and log management tools have been complementary for years, the technologies are expected to merge. Evolution of SIEM: SIEM emerged as companies found themselves spending a lot of money on intrusion detection/prevention systems (IDS/IPS). These systems were helpful in detecting external attacks, but because of the reliance on signature-based engines, a large number of false positives were generated. The first-generation SIEM technology was designed to reduce this signal-to-noise ratio and helped to capture the most critical external threats. Using rule-based correlation, SIEM helped IT detect real attacks by focusing on a subset of firewall and IDS/IPS events that were in violation of policy. Traditionally, SIEM solutions have been expensive and time-intensive to maintain and tweak, but they solve the big headache of sorting through excessive false alerts and they effectively protect companies from external threats. While that was a step in the right direction, the world got more complicated when new regulations such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard follo wed much stricter internal IT controls and assessment. To satisfy these requirements, organizations are required to collect, analyze, report on and archive all logs to monitor activities inside their IT infrastructures. The idea is not only to detect external threats, but also to provide periodic reports of user activities and create forensics reports surrounding a given incident. Though SIEM technologies collect logs, they process only a subset of data related to security breaches. They werent designed to handle the sheer volume of log data generated from all IT components, such as applications, switches, routers, databases, firewalls, operating systems, IDS/IPS and Web proxies. With an idea to monitor user activities rather than external threats, log management entered the market as a technology with architecture to handle much larger volumes of data and with the ability to extend to meet the demands of the largest enterprises. Companies implement log management and SIEM solutions to satisfy different business requirements, and they have also find out that the two technologies work well together. Log management tools are designed to collect report and archive a large volume and breadth of log data , whereas SIEM solutions are designed to correlate a subset of log data to point out the most critical security events. On looking at an enterprise IT arsenal, it is likely to see both log management and SIEM. Log management tools often assume the role of a log data warehouse that filters and forwards the necessary log data to SIEM solutions for correlation. This combination helps in optimizing the return on investment while also reducing the cost for implementing SIEM. In these tough economic times it is likely to see IT trying to stretch its logging technologies to solve even more problems. It will expect its log management and SIEM technologies to work closer together and reduce overlapping functionalities. Relation between SIEM and log management: Like many things in the IT industry, theres a lot of market positioning and buzz coming around regarding how the original term of SIM (Security Information Management), the subsequent marketing term SEM (Security Event Management), the newer combined term of SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) relate to the long standing process of log management. The basics of log management are not new. Operating systems, devices and applications all generate logs of some sort that contain system-specific events and notifications. The information in logs may vary in overall usefulness, but before one can derive much value out of them, they first need to be enabled, then transported and eventually stored. Therefore the way that one does gather this data from an often distributed range of systems and get it into a centralized (or at least semi-centralized) location is the first challenge of log management that counts. There are varying techniques to accomplish centralization, ranging from standardizing on the syslog mechanism and then deploying centralized syslog servers, to using commercial products to address the log data acquisition, transport and storage issues. Some of the other issues in log management include working around network bottlenecks, establishing reliable event transport (such as syslog over UDP), setting requirements around encryption, and managing the raw data storage issues. So the first steps in this process are figuring out what type of log and event information is in need to gather, how to transport it, and where to store it. But that leads to another major consideration about what should one person want to do with all those data. It is at this point where the basic log management ends and the higher-level functions associated with SIEM begins. SIEM products typically provide many of the features that remain essential for log management but add event-reduction, alerting and real-time analysis capabilities. They provide the layer of technology that allows one to say with confidence that not only are logs being gathered but they are also being reviewed. SIEM also allows for the importation of data that isnt necessarily even t-driven (such as vulnerability scanning reports) and it is known as the Information portion of SIEM. SIEM architecture: Long term log management and forensic queries need a database built for capacity, with file management and compression tools. Short term threat analysis and correlation need real time data, CPU and RAM. The solution for this is as follows: >Split the feeds to two concurrent engines. >Optimize one for real time and storage up to 30 days of data. (100-300GB) >Optimize the second for log compression, retention, and query functions. (1TB+) The block diagram showing the architecture of the SIEM is as follows: [Source: Reference 2] A collector is a process that gathers data. Collectors are produced in many shapes and sizes from agents that run on the monitored device, to centralized logging devices with pre-processors to split stream the data. These can be simple REGEX file parsing applications, or complex agents for OPSEC, LEA, for .Net/WMI, SDEE/RDEP, or ODBC/SQL queries. Not all security devices are kind enough to forward data, and multiple input methods, including active pull capabilities, are very essential. Also, since SYSLOG data is not encrypted, it may need a collector to provide encrypted transport. A threat analysis engine will need to run in real time, continuously processing and correlating events of interest passed to it by the collector, and reporting to a console or presentation layer application about the threats found. Typically reporting events that has happened for 30 days are sufficient for operational considerations. A log manager will need to store a great deal of data, and may take either raw logs or filtered events of interest, and need to compress store and index the data for long term forensic analysis and compliance reporting. Capacity for 18 months or more of data is likely to be required. Year end closing of books and the arrival of the auditors often necessitate the need for 12 months of historic data plus padding of several months while books are finalized and an audit to be completed. At the presentation layer a console will present the events to the security staff and managers. This is the primary interface to the system for day to day operations, and should efficiently prioritize and present the events with a full history and correlation rationale. SIEM functions: With some subtle differences, there are four major functions of SIEM solutions. They are as follows: 1. Log Consolidation centralized logging to a server 2. Threat Correlation the artificial intelligence used to sort through multiple logs and log entries to identify attackers 3. Incident Management workflow What happens once a threat is identified? (link from identification to containment and eradication). Notification email, pagers, informs to enterprise managers (MOM, HP Openview) Trouble Ticket Creation Automated responses execution of scripts (instrumentation) Response and Remediation logging 4. Reporting Operational Efficiency/Effectiveness Compliance / SOX, HIPPA, FISMA. Ad Hoc / Forensic Investigations Coming to the business case for SIEM, all engineers are perpetually drawn to new technology, but purchasing decisions should by necessity be based on need and practicality. Even though the functions provided by SIEM are impressive they must be chosen only if they fit an enterprises needs. Why use a SIEM? There are two branches on the SIEM tree namely, operational efficiency and effectiveness, and log management/compliance. Both are achievable with a good SIEM tool. However since there is a large body of work on log management, and compliance has multiple branches, this coursework will focus only on using a SIEM tool effectively to point out the real attackers, and the worst threats to improve security operations efficiency and effectiveness. It can be believed that the most compelling reason for a SIEM tool from an operational perspective is to reduce the number of security events on any given day to a manageable, actionable list, and to automate analysis such that real attacks and intruders can be discerned. As a whole, the number of IT professionals, and security focused individuals at any given company has decreased relative to the complexity and capabilities demanded by an increasingly inter networked web. While one solution may have dozens of highly skilled security engineers on staff pouring through individual event logs to identify threats, SIEM attempts to automate that process and can achieve a legitimate reduction of 99.9+% of security event data while it actually increases the effective detection over traditional human driven monitoring. This is why SIEM is preferred by most of the companies. Reasons to use a SIEM: To know the need for a SIEM tool in an organization is very important. A defense in depth strategy (industry best practice) utilizes multiple devices: Firewalls, IDS, AV, AAA, VPN, User Events LDAP/NDS/NIS/X.500, Operating System Logs which can easily generate hundreds of thousands of events per day, in some cases, even millions. No matter how good a security engineer is, about 1,000 events per day is a practical maximum that a security engineer is about to deal with. So if the security team is to remain small they will need to be equipped with a good SIEM tool. No matter how good an individual device is, if not monitored and correlated, each device can be bypassed individually, and the total security capabilities of a system will not exceed its weakest link. When monitored as a whole, with cross device correlation, each device will signal an alert as it is attacked raising awareness and threat indications at each point allowing for additional defences to be brought into play, and i ncident response proportional to the total threat. Even some of the small and medium businesses with just a few devices are seeing over 100,000 events per day. This has become usual in most of the companies says the internet. Real world examples: Below are event and threat alert numbers from two different sites currently running with 99.xx% correlation efficiency on over 100,000 events per day, among which one industry expert referred to as amateur level, stating that 99.99 or 99.999+% efficiency on well in excess of 1,000,000 events per day is more common. Manufacturing Company Central USA 24 hour average, un-tuned SIEM day of deployment Alarms Generated 3722 Correlation Efficiency 99.06% Critical / Major Level Alerts 170 Effective Efficiency 99.96% [Source: Reference 2] In this case, using a SIEM allows the companys security team (2 people in an IT staff of 5), to respond to 170 critical and major alerts per day (likely to decrease as the worst offenders are firewalled out, and the worst offenses dealt with), rather than nearly 400,000. Financial Services Organization 94,600 events 153 actionable alerts 99.83% reduction. [Source: Reference 2] The company above deals with a very large volume of financial transactions, and a missed threat can mean real monetary losses. With respect to the Business Case, a good SIEM tool can provide the analytics, and the knowledge of a good security engineer can be automated and repeated against a mountain of events from a range of devices. Instead of 1,000 events per day, an engineer with a SIEM tool can handle 100,000 events per day (or more). And a SIEM does not leave at night, find another job, take a break or take vacations. It will be working always. SIEM Selection Criteria: The first thing one should look at is the goal. (i.e.) what should the SIEM do for them. If you just need log management then make the vendor can import data from ALL of the available log sources. Not all events are sent via SYSLOG. Some may be sent through: Checkpoint LEA Cisco IDS RDEP/SDEE encryption Vulnerability Scanner Databases Nessus, Eeye, ISS AS/400 Mainframes flat files Databases ODBC/SQL queries Microsoft .Net/WMI Consider a product that has a defined data collection process that can pull data (queries, retrieve files, WMI api calls), as well as accept input sent to it. And it is essential to be aware that logs, standards, and formats change, several (but not all), vendors can adapt by parsing files with REGEX and importing if one can get them a file. However log management itself is not usually an end goal. It matters about for what purpose these logs are used for. They may be used for threat identification, compliance reporting or forensics. It is also essential to know whether the data captured is in real-time. If threat identification is the primary goal, 99+% correlation/consolidation/aggregation is easily achievable, and when properly tuned, 99.99+% efficiency is within reach (1-10 actionable threat alerts / 100,000 events). If compliance reporting is the primary goal, then consider what regulations one is subject to. Frequently a company is subject to multiple compliance requirements. Consider a fortune 500 company like General Electrics. As a publicly traded company GE is subject to SOX, as a vendor of medical equipment and software they are subject to HIPPA, as a vendor to the Department of Defense, they are subject to FISMA. In point of fact, GE must produce compliance reports for at least one corporate division for nearly each and every regulation. Two brief notes on compliance, and one should look at architecture: Beware of vendors with canned reports. While they may be very appealing, and sound like a solution, valid compliance and auditing is about matching output to ones stated policies, and must be customized to match each companys published policies. Any SIEM that can collect all of the required data, meet ISO 177999, and provide timely monitoring can be used to aid in compliance. Compliance i s a complex issue with many management, and financial process requirements, it is not just a function or report IT can provide. Advanced SIEM Topics: Risk Based Correlation / Risk Profiling Correlation based on risk can dramatically reduce the number of rules required for effective threat identification. The threat and target profiles do most of the work. If the attacks are risk profiled, three relatively simple correlation rules can identify 99%+ of the attacks. They are as follows: IP Attacker repeat offenders IP Target repeat targets Vulnerability Scan + IDS Signature match Single Packet of Doom Risk Based Threat Identification is one of the more effective and interesting correlation methods, but has several requirements: >A Metabase of Signatures Cisco calls the attack X, ISS calls it Y, Snort calls it Z Cross Reference the data >Requires automated method to keep up to date. >Threats must be compiled and threat weightings applied to each signature/event. Reconnaissance events are low weighting but aggregate and report on the persistent (low and slow) attacker Finger Printing a bit more specific, a bit higher weighting Failed User Login events a medium weighting, could be an unauthorized attempt to access a resource, or a forgotten password. Buffer Overflows, Worms and Viruses -high weighting -potentially destructive events one need to respond to unless one has already patched/protected the system. >The ability to learn or adjust to ones network Input or auto-discover which systems, are business critical vs. which are peripherals, desktops, and non-essential >Risk Profiling: Proper application of trust weightings to reporting devices (NIST 800-42 best practice), can also help to lower cry wolf issues with current security management Next-generation SIEM and log management: One area where the tools can provide the most needed help is in compliance. Corporations increasingly face the challenge of staying accountable to customers, employees and shareholders, and that means protecting IT infrastructure, customer and corporate data, and complying with rules and regulations as defined by the government and industry. Regulatory compliance is here to stay, and under the Obama administration, corporate accountability requirements are likely to grow. Log management and SIEM correlation technologies can work together to provide more comprehensive views to help companies satisfy their regulatory compliance requirements, make their IT and business processes more efficient and reduce management and technology costs in the process. IT organizations also will expect log management and intelligence technologies to provide more value to business activity monitoring and business intelligence. Though SIEM will continue to capture security-related data, its correlation engine can be re-appropriated to correlate business processes and monitor internal events related to performance, uptime, capability utilization and service-level management. We will see the combined solutions provide deeper insight into not just IT operations but also business processes. For example, we can monitor business processes from step A to Z and, if a step gets missed, well see where and when. In short, by integrating SIEM and log management, it is easy to see how companies can save by de-duplicating efforts and functionality. The functions of collecting, archiving, indexing and correlating log data can be collapsed. That will also lead to savings in the resources required and in the maintenance of the tools. CONCLUSION: SIEM is a complex technology, and the market segment remains in flux. SIEM solutions require a high level of technical expertise and SIEM vendors require extensive partner training and certification. SIEM gets more exciting when one can apply log-based activity data and security-event-inspired correlation to other business problems. Regulatory compliance, business activity monitoring and business intelligence are just the tip of the iceberg. Leading-edge customers are already using the tools to increase visibility and the security of composite Web 2.0 applications, cloud-based services and mobile devices. The key is to start with a central record of user and system activity and build an open architecture that lets different business users access the information to solve different business problems. So there is no doubt in SIEM solutions helping the intrusion detection and response to improve. References: 1. Nicolett.M., Williams.A.T., Proctor.P.E. (2006) Magic Quadrant for Security Information and Event Management, 1H06 RA3 1192006. 2. Swift.D. (2006) A Practical Application of SIM/SEM/SIEM Automating Threat Identification 3. SIEM: A Market Snapshot (2007) from;jsessionid=BVQXTH11HH14JQE1GHPSKH4ATMY32JVN [Date Accessed: 20th November,2009]. 4. WHAT IS SIEM (2008) from [Date Accessed: 24th November, 2009]. 5. Securing and Managing Your Enterprise: An Integrated Approach (2008) from [Date Accessed: 25th November, 2009]. 6. Shipley .G.(2008) Are SIEM and log management the same thing? from [Date Accessed: 26th November, 2009] 7. Levin.D. (2009) The convergence of SIEM and log management from [Date Accessed: 26th November, 2009]

Monday, August 19, 2019

SPAM: The Unethical Email Phenomenon Essay -- Internet

SPAM: The Unethical Email Phenomenon It's what's for breakfast. As I wake from my deep sleep of twelve hours, I step out of bed and go about my daily summer routine. I wash my face and peruse through the fridge for something to eat; its noon, meaning the mail is in. I step out of the house to check the mailbox. I’ve always looked forward to receiving the mail, as most people do until they are old enough to pay the bills. I bring back the mail to the dining table as I commence to eat the leftover SPAM my mom cooked and hope for a magazine or catalog to look at. As I sift through the hoard of envelopes at my disposal, I sort them into their respective categories: â€Å"Bill, bill, junk mail, letter, junk mail, letter, catalog, bill, junk mail, magazine!† I toss out all the junk mail and keep the stuff I really am going to read: the sports catalog and car magazine. After finishing breakfast, I head back to my room and turn on my computer, log onto the internet and check my yahoo email inbox. As I log into my account, I notice the glowing red warning that my inbox is at 101% capacity. I receive 8 new emails, 5 of which are obvious junk mail, 2 mysterious emails addressed to my name, and another email which I was expecting from a teacher. I immediately delete the obvious SPAM which I have trained myself to notice right away after years of internet use, then spend time to open and view both mysterious emails which also turn out to be SPAM. After all that energy is spent, I am finally able read my teacher's important e-mail. Remembering that my inbox is blinking red, I delete the bulk mail folder that yahoo has graciously provided as a SPAM filter, which holds 94 new SPAM emails, then finally empty out my email trash. Luckily,... ...SPAM Bill ." San Jose Mercury News 24 September 2003 : 1A. [11] "SPAM - Unsolicited Commercial E-Mail ." 23 October 2003 . Electronic Privacy Information Center. 15 November 2003 <>. [12] "E-MAILS SENT TO HOUSE FILES FOUND TO PRODUCE HIGHEST RETURN-ON-INVESTMENT FOR SOLICITING DIRECT ORDERS." DMA Press Release. 13 October 2003. DMA. 14 November 2003 <>. [13] Krim, Jonathan. "Spam's Cost To Business Escalates ." Washington Post 13 March 2003. Business. 3 November 2003 <>. [14] Black, Jane. "Before Spam Brings the Web to Its Knees." Business Week 10 June 2003. Special Report: The Social Web. 12 November 2003 <>.

Collectivist Anarchism :: Papers

Collectivist Anarchism The philosophical roots of Collectivist Anarchism lie in socialism rather than liberalism. Collectivists believe that human beings are social animals better suited to working together for the common good, than for individual interests. When people are linked together by a common humanity they have no need to be controlled or regulated by a government. As Michael Bakunin proclaimed, 'social solidarity is the first human law, freedom is the second law'. Collectivist anarchists are sometimes criticised for holding a naÃÆ' ¯ve and hopelessly optimistic view of human nature. Human beings will be greedy if they are brought up in an unjust society, they will be caring if they are brought up in a society where justice and equality reign. This helps us to understand just why anarchists are so interested in education. Anarchism and Marxism - what's the difference? A number of parallels exist between Collectivist Anarchism and Marxismà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ ÃÆ' ¼ Both see capitalism as a system of class exploitation ÃÆ' ¼ Human beings have the ultimate ability to order their own affairs without the controlling hand of state intervening. But Collectivists and Marxists do come into conflict over a couple of thingsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ * Firstly Anarchists criticise Marxism's deterministic character, taking destiny out of the hands of the people, and making it an economic certainty. * Marxists view the proletariat as the only truly revolutionary class, whereas anarchists view everyone from peasants, to students, to the ethnic minorities, as victims of repression. * The ideologies also differ in the need for a 'vanguard party', with the specific purpose of leading the oppressed to utopia. Anarchists have always rejected traditional political means, and that only a spontaneous uprising of the masses can lead to true anarchism, and so avoid aà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ * à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦'Dictatorship of the Proletariat', an idea crucial to defending the progression from capitalist to socialist, according to Marx, and one abhorred by anarchists, who view the state not as a symbol of class rule, but as an independent oppressive body.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Genetic Engineering Essay -- Argumentative Persuasive Essays

Genetic Engineering Most people take for granted the food that they consume each and every day will be safe and nutritious. When they wake up in the morning they do not have to think about getting enough food to survive the day. In order for the agriculture industry, that produces food and clothing for everyone, to keep up with our growing population it needs to utilize new technology. Agriculture has to find ways to produce more crops while many fertile acres of land are lost to development. Many people who like to eat the food produced would like to do away with genetic engineering; this would lead to lack of food and increased starvation around the world. Genetic engineering is the artificial moving of genes from one species to another. Genes are special chemicals that work as sets of blueprints to determine an organism's traits. Moving genes from one organism to another moves those traits. This gene transfer allows traits that would never naturally occur in a certain species to be inserted into the DNA of that species. Scientists can take a gene for blue coat color from a sea urchin and transplant it into a brown horse to get a blue horse. In nature the only way you could get a blue horse is if a line of horses already contain the gene for blue coat color. Genetic engineering is a radically new technology for changing the traits of organisms by substituting genetic material that has been altered outside of cells. This process allows scientists to rearrange and change genetic material before transfer and may one day lead to the transplanting of genes not found in nature but made in a laboratory. Through this altering of genes crops ca n be produced that are safer for the consumer. Transplanted genes develop crops th... ... impossible to confidently predict the effects of genetic manipulations because of the complexity and interconnectedness of living systems. (Fagan 1) We do have to be careful so herbicide resistance genes do not get transferred to weeds; or "super weeds" might be created which cannot be killed with traditional methods. We also have to make sure that only the genes that we want will be inserted so we do not insert bad traits with the bad (Sage 2). As you can see from these arguments from both sides, if we are going to be able to continue to feed the world we have to be able to keep producing more food on less land. The best way to do this is through genetically engineered crops. Works Cited (Monsanto) (Sage) (Fagan)

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Indonesian Culture Essay

Praise and gratitude I prayed to Almighty God for the implementation of events on this day well. I also says thank you for your time and opportunity that has been in invite In this speech I want to convey about the importance of creativity in preserving the culture of Indonesia. As we know, the Indonesian culture stretched from Sabang to Marauke. Having dozens of cultural heritage that is rich in art. Many nations are amazed and want to claim the Indonesian culture as the culture of their nation. Therefore, it is then we as the younger generation is very good if we realize that culture is an irreplaceable treasure. Culture can not be created with ease, especially with a short time. It has a lot of effort to preserve the culture of Indonesia, but these measures were not the maximum. One of the legendary Indonesian culture is batik. Batik is one of the culture that has worldwide and at times lately, batik started getting attention from the younger generation. Batik day is a day where all parties were invited to use the batik. This is very good for the younger generation and continuity of batik culture itself. Creativity will flourish on its own batik with the number of requests. Modern fashion and in accordance with the age would make batik as a means of creativity for young designers. Make a spear batik fashion formal, semi-formal and informal. Devise an original batik fashion is very trendy but if the wear by every level of generation. Besides batik, there are also other fabrics that are not less beautiful like songket, ulos cloth and so forth. It is time we as a younger generation of cultivating the culture without losing its originality. Make batik as one of the fashion icons of cool and interesting to young people. Besides batik, Indonesian culture most often in the interest of the dance area. Indonesian dance is no less exotic and graceful in compare with other countries. Lots of foreign tourists coming to Indonesia just to see the original dance Indonesia. Have you ever witnessed a cultural festival or to welcome important guests who came to Indonesia. Art music and dance in performing very unusual. In my opinion the area of ​​dance should be introduced among the students and the students so that the scene of the contest are no less interesting with cheerleading competition. Padukanlah regional dance with modern dance, as one of the concepts of dance in one of the most popular events in Indonesia. Hilangkanlah connotation that the dance area is not slang. Berkreasilah, and teach local dances native to Indonesia as one of the dances are in the interest of the subject. Besides creativity, promotion factors also play an important role. Promote their Indonesian Arts to foreign countries with interesting ideas and unique. Thus Indonesian Arts gained international recognition and is not easy to duplicate. Do not ever get bored in the creative, cultural lestarikanlah Indonesia, quicken your identity as bangssa Indonesia. A few of my speech. Thank you for your attention.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Anti War Movement And Impacts On Vietnam War History Essay

Of all the major wars in which the United States was involved, none have been more controversial than the war in Vietnam. The Vietnam War, a diplomatic attempt by the United States, split the state in half. It was a war surrounded by contention and guess with engagement non merely from authorities functionaries but from amusement personalities every bit good as legion mass presentations on college campuses across the state. With the aid of these mass presentations, the backdown of American military personnels would go on even before the war in Vietnam was over and a presidential dirt would finally come up assisting a rapid remotion of military personnels from Vietnam. From the Gulf of Tonkin incident to the slaughter at My Lai and the shots at Kent State University, it would go a war which could non easy be forgotten. History shows that Vietnam was non a fledgling to war and in fact had been engaged in some kind of struggle dating as far back as 200 B.C. when it was invaded by the Hans from China. Ruled for 100s of old ages, the Vietnamese eventually achieved what they thought would be their independency. However, this did non stop the feuds and struggles in the state and Vietnam would see itself once more contending encroachers from China every bit good as Mongolia. In the early nineteenth century, Vietnam was eventually able to throw out all encroachers and get down a new dynasty. The new dynasty, known as the Nguyen Dynasty, would see itself overtaken by Gallic encroachers who would finally colonise Vietnam and command the full state. However in 1930, after being colonized by the Gallic for about 50 old ages, the Vietnamese Communist Party was founded. The Vietnamese so began to arise against the Gallic every bit good the Japanese, who besides occupied Vietnam during WWII, under the leading of Nguyen Ai Quoc ( subsequently known as Ho Chi Minh ) . Finally in 1954, after about two and a half decennaries of contending against the Gallic, the Vietnamese were able to throw out the Gallic in the well known conflict at Dien Bien Phu. As a consequence of their triumph at Dien Bien Phu and the Geneva Agreement on Vietnam, the state was split into two parts at the 17th analogue. This splitting of the state was supposed to be impermanent and elections were to be held in 1956 to reunite Vietnam ( Vietnamese Embassy in USA, n.d. ) . The elections set for 1956 ne'er happened. Supported by the United States, South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem, in an effort to derive independency and go its ain state, refused to let the elections to be carried through as he knew that Ho Chi Minh would win the presidential term, something that Ngo and the United States decidedly did n't desire to go on. Because of Ngo ‘s refusal to travel through with the elections, which did n't run into the footings of the Geneva Agreement, the North Vietnamese lost trust in any signifier of diplomatic solution to the division of the state. As a consequence, President Eisenhower began directing â€Å" military advisors † to South Vietnam under the justification of the â€Å" Domino consequence † or the â€Å" loss of an ally in Southeast Asia taking to the loss of others † ( Into the morass, 2007, para 5 ) . President Eisenhower ‘s end was to assist South Vietnam retain its independency which would go another ground for American engagement in Vietnam. One twelvemonth after the Vietnamese elections were supposed to go on, Ngo ‘s authorities came under onslaught from South Vietnamese â€Å" Rebels † known as the Viet Cong. Then, in 1959, Hanoi granted permission for an armed opposition against Ngo ‘s authorities in Saigon ( Mitz, 2007 ) . Initially, the United States paid small attending to Ngo ‘s misdirection of the war. However, they did notice confrontations between Ngo, who was Catholic, and Buddhist leaders in Vietnam. This led to a military putsch encouraged by the United States which ousted Ngo from power in 1963. The putsch led to internal combat and treachery among South Vietnamese military functionaries. In 1964 General Nguyen Khanh, taking Ngo ‘s place, became the leader of South Vietnam. During that same twelvemonth, it was realized that the Viet Cong were winning the war as they were going more and more capable of managing ARVN ( Army of the Republic of Viet Nam ) forces. It was at this clip that the United States contemplated taking serious military enterprise against the North ( Moise, 1996 ) . During 1964, several preparation plans were installed in South Vietnam which was chiefly amphibian war tactic preparation. Actually get downing in 1961, the preparation became more aimed toward aquatic preparation which the United States thought would be good in the war against the Communist North. A base was setup at My Khe in 1962 where â€Å" busting parties † were given preparation by Navy SEALs. The different types of developing given to the raiding parties included â€Å" gum elastic boat, aqualung, cross-beach operations, and explosive destruction techniques † all of which were carried out at My Khe Beach on the eastern seashore of the Tien Sha Peninsula. During these preparation operations, several onslaughts on high precedence marks in the North were unsuccessful with several ARVN work forces being captured ( Moise, 1996 ) . During the early portion of 1964, it was decided that RVN Navy officers were unable to transport out any kind of intelligent program and U.S. advisers had to be installed in all grades of military where intelligence was needed. There were legion foraies on North Vietnam from February to July by the American trained RVN â€Å" frog work forces † . However, these foraies amounted to nil more than monolithic losingss for South Vietnamese forces. ( Moise, 1996 ) . Later that twelvemonth on August 2, studies were made of onslaughts on U.S. Navy vass off the seashore of northern Vietnam by usage of North Vietnamese gunman boats. These boats were said to hold attacked the USS Maddox but were merely able to hit it with one slug. The Maddox opened fire and there were onslaughts on these gunmans boats by aircraft from the aircraft bearer Ticonderoga. One of the boats was said to hold sunk and the other to hold been earnestly â€Å" damaged † . Shortly subsequently, the Maddox con tinued its patrol along the North Vietnam coastline accompanied by another destroyer, the USS C. Turner Joy. Once once more, on August 4, as the destroyers were on patrol, gunman boats made attempted another onslaught. These torpedo boats followed behind the destroyers and so moved in at full velocity assailing both vass. The destroyers fought back and when the combat had stopped, sometime after midnight, the three gunman boats were believed to hold been done for or damaged. The destroyers, nevertheless, came out unhurt ( Schlight, 1996 ) . These onslaughts were carried out within merely a few yearss of air foraies on North Vietnamese marks non far from where the destroyers were positioned. However, the onslaughts on these destroyers were considered â€Å" motiveless † and hence led the president at that clip, Lyndon B. Johnson, to show the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to Congress. It passed through the Senate and the House of Representatives with merely two members of the Senate disagreeing. This declaration gave Johnson the power to officially get down â€Å" combat operations † throughout Southeast Asia whenever he felt necessary. It was believed that this declaration would be used in defence of aggression against the United States. Congress hence had no ground to believe that President Johnson would of all time utilize the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to intensify the war in Vietnam ( Moise, 1996 ) . However, there were conflicting studies from the naval vass as to what truly happened with most of the information being extremely exaggerated. Dayss after the onslaughts, initiated by the conflicting studies, Johnson began holding uncertainties which he expressed to George Ball, the Undersecretary of State. Although he had uncertainties after the onslaughts, no grounds can be found of these uncertainties on August 4th when President Johnson gave orders for revenge against North Vietnamese forces. False onslaughts or non, Johnson would decidedly hold force per unit area on him to move as he had been runing for the approaching elections. The events of August 4th and 6th every bit good as a separate onslaught in September in the Gulf of Tonkin together with President Johnson ‘s initial reaction and his inquiring of the credibleness of the onslaughts made the incident one of the precursors of contention that enveloped the United States ‘ engagement in Vietnam ( Moise, 1996 ) . Adding to the contention of the Gulf of Tonkin incident, new information was released with grounds that the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was â€Å" drafted † at least six months before the existent onslaughts on United States military â€Å" vass † . Other information was released which brought to illume the United States ‘ aid of South Vietnamese military foraies on the North. This was said to hold â€Å" provoked † the onslaughts by the North on United States â€Å" vass † . There was besides grounds of Johnson ‘s hyperbole of the existent harm to the ships, which really were non harmed ( Moise, 1996 ) . Another turning point in the Vietnam War merely a few old ages subsequently was the Tet Offensive of 1968. Initiated on January 21, the Tet Offensive began with Communist military personnels enfolding Khe San, a United States Marine base, for a sum of 77 yearss. On January 31st, as a portion of the Tet Offensive, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong military personnels attacked metropoliss and towns throughout South Vietnam assailing a sum of 36 â€Å" provincial capitals † , five â€Å" major metropoliss † , 64 â€Å" territory capitals † , and near to fifty â€Å" crossroadss † . The force with which the offense was carried out aghast President Johnson every bit good as American citizens go forthing Americans with small religion that any promotion had been made in Vietnam under President Johnson ‘s war policy ( Willbanks, 2007 ) . Get downing in 1965, the United States began directing more and more military personnels to Vietnam. These military personnels were actively involved in operations carried out on the Viet Cong with hopes that the enemy would merely give up. The first of these major operations happened in November 1965. The concluding behind these operations was to seek to interrupt down the ground forcess by wounding or killing a huge figure of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese military personnels. However, Hanoi took the enterprise to direct more military personnels down with which the United States answered by a bomb onslaught along the Ho Chi Minh Trail and other known Viet Cong constitutions. As 1968 was pulling nearer, it was obvious the bombardment along the Ho Chi Minh Trail had about no consequence on the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army and war in the South was acquiring worse twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. By late 1967 readyings for the Tet Offensive had already begun which wou ld take up to the huge combat that would last until fall of the undermentioned twelvemonth ( Willbanks, 2007 ) . Early 1968 saw North Vietnamese forces begin violative onslaughts on countries environing Khe San and the North Vietnamese Army began to increase its Numberss in that part. For American war functionaries, this would be the type of combat that would certainly alter the result of the war in favour of the United States. With North Vietnamese forces being forced to contend in a combat type offensive instead than the usual guerrilla war tactics, General Westmoreland saw this as the chance needed to weaken and destruct North Vietnamese forces. In fact, it was believed that the war had already begun to take a bend in favour of the United States. The Viet Cong had been dealt serious blows which accounted for a big sum of casualties. Because of these casualties there was incredulity that America would non win the war, particularly with the type of advanced engineering being used. There was besides disbelief that North Vietnamese forces were still capable of holding a strong military due to th e figure of casualties the North had incurred in the old two old ages. This left Westmoreland unprepared for the onslaughts that would shortly get down on American bases and metropoliss in South Vietnam ( Willbanks, 2007 ) . Westmoreland was certain the conflict would be at Khe San and would be after Tet as he did n't believe North Vietnamese forces would assail on such a major vacation. Even holding information that an offense was on the rise and propaganda about an onslaught during the Tet vacation, Westmoreland was still unconvinced. To Westmoreland ‘s surprises, every bit good as that of American and South Vietnamese military personnels, North Vietnamese forces began their onslaughts. The Tet Offensive, which began January 31st, would last for 77 yearss with heavy contending throughout South Vietnam. With more and more intelligence being broadcast at place in respects to the combat and the figure of casualties incurred by American forces, Americans were losing religion in the authorities. However, at the terminal of the Tet Offensive, Westmoreland had credited it as a triumph for American forces. Americans back place could n't understand the construct of a triumph with so many casualties incurr ed by American and Allied forces particularly when it seemed that North Vietnam had a ne'er stoping supply of man-power. This led to American ‘s belief that the authorities had been lying the full clip about the advancement in Vietnam ( Willbanks, 2007 ) . The Tet Offensive led to half of American citizenss being wholly against any escalations in Vietnam whatsoever. This resistance led to many protests which became known as the Anti-War Movement. Resistance to the war in Vietnam was merely intensified after the Tet Offensive and intelligence of the sum of casualties America had suffered. Many of these protests became violent taking to a few really important events in the Anti-War Movement. In March 1968, New York University pupils protested the presence of recruiters from napalm maker Dow Chemical Company, which supplied the United States military with napalm which was used in Vietnam, every bit good as military recruiters on campus. A month subsequently, the beginning of the escalation of the Anti-War Movement had begun when pupils at Columbia University took over an disposal edifice doing Columbia University to be closed. The business of the disposal edifice escalated into a surety state of affairs with a few school functionaries bei ng held for at least 24 hours. The pupils were removed from the edifice by utilizing constabularies force which would non be the last clip constabularies used force to command anti-war protestors. That same twelvemonth during the Democratic Convention in Chicago protestors and constabulary forces would once more run into with constabulary forces utilizing beastly force to command the protests. To do the state of affairs even worse, the constabulary did non let telecasting Stationss to be in the locality of the Democratic Convention for fear the newsmans would impede the exiting of the Democratic campaigners ( Barringer, 1999 ) should the demand arise. Though protests began in 1963, the two old mentioned protests would be the accelerators that really set the Anti-War Movement on the way that would finally see the motion holding casualties. Just a twosome of old ages after the protests in New York and Chicago, the lives of several pupils would be taken in 1970 after information became public refering a monolithic American military cover-up in which American forces in several little crossroadss in South Vietnam massacred 100s of unarmed Vietnamese civilians in a hunt for Viet Cong military personnels ; largely adult females, kids, and older work forces. This would go known as the My Lai Massacre and it sparked monolithic protests across the state. ( Barringer, 1999 ) . Richard M. Nixon would subsequently be elected as president of the United States with promises of an terminal to the war in Vietnam, something which the American populace had been hankering to hear. Surprisingly, in April 1970, President Nixon made the determination to occupy Cambodia in order to assail Viet Cong campsites which had been used as a hideaway. With anti-war sentiments already being strong across the state as a consequence of America ‘s continued engagement in Vietnam, non to advert the slaughter at My Lai, the invasion of Cambodia would merely add more fuel to these sentiments making more animus from anti-war protestors towards the American engagement in Vietnam. In May 1970, amid studies of President Nixon ‘s determination to occupy Cambodia, pupils held big protests and sit-ins on college campuses throughout the United States. Death finally would go a portion of the Vietnam War non merely in Vietnam but in the United States every bit good. On May 4th, afte r a declaration of a province of exigency in Kent, Ohio by the city manager a few yearss before, the Ohio National Guard fired upon protestors at Kent University with a few people being killed, including two non-protestors, and several others being wounded. ( Lewis & A ; Hensley, 1998 ) . All these major events, from the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution to the Kent State shots, would do the Anti-War Movement against American engagement in Vietnam one of the most exultant anti-war motions in the history of all United States anti-war motions. The protests and the figure of casualties in Vietnam would play a important function in the backdown of American military personnels from Vietnam. During Johnson ‘s presidential term, the anti-war motion had a momentous function in haltering the war and had a big impact â€Å" in the disposal ‘s policy reversal in 1968 † . Subsequently, at the clip of Nixon ‘s presidential term, the anti-war protests accelerated the detachment of U.S. military personnels, continued to halter the war, harbored the decline of U.S. troop â€Å" morale and subject † , which helped to rush up troop backdown, and led to statute law which would cut off support of the war from the United States. The Anti-War Movement besides harbor ed indicants of the Watergate dirt, which played a major function in seting an terminal to the war by enfeebling Nixon ‘s power in Congress hence enfeebling his â€Å" ability to go on the war † . The United States would see the backdown of the last active combat military personnels from Vietnam in 1973 ( Wells, 1999 ) .