Monday, September 30, 2019

Itunes Music Pricing

Josefina Anorga Carlos Albizu University iTunes Music Pricing Adopting a variable pricing policy might increase the sales revenue of Apple’s Music Store. Pricing the more popular songs at a higher price and the less popular ones at a lesser rate would generate higher sales for the lesser popular ones. Thus making up for the slight drop in sales of expensive tracks and ultimately working towards overall increased revenues. Although most songs with a higher price point experienced nearly 21 % drop in sales, the 29 % increase in price made up for the loss.Moreover, sales for the top 40 songs have a relatively inelastic demand and are expected to be unaffected by the price rise. The customers of these popular songs are price-insensitive and hence make a greater contribution to the increased revenues since the optimal price can be marked at a value much higher than the marginal cost. With the tiered pricing structure, iTunes Music Store would also be able to tackle the increasing c ompetition by the major wireless companies offering downloadable music to the cell phone subscribers.Variable pricing intelligently supports the maximized returns by allowing the company to adjust the value of per-unit prices to increase revenues and encourage the potential customers to be allured by the lowered prices of specific tracks. Apple’s iTunes Music Store might adopt other strategies such as Product Bundle Pricing strategy to make a bundle of different songs (both popular and less popular tracks) and sell them at reduced prices. This will not only help the sales of the slow moving sound tracks, but also work as a revenue generator by way of alluring potential consumers.The bundling strategy will help in increasing profits by extracting additional consumer surplus. Another strategy that the company may adopt is the captive pricing policy. This approach will require the company to charge higher prices for the songs since they can only be downloaded exclusively on the iPod. This will ensure higher revenue from the existing customer downloads, however the company might not be able to increase the iPod sales following this pricing policy. The company may implement promotional pricing strategies such as offering some specific songs at discounted prices along with the purchase of the new iPods.This would not only boost the sales of the iPods, it would also attract the customers to buy the usually expensive songs at discounted rates. This would directly promote the music sales thus increasing revenues. While the variable pricing strategy is seen as way to increase revenue, the sophisticated pricing structure poses high risks and potential costs to the company. With the advent of the information technology and the rise in the unauthorized file swapping networks, the company is already at a high risk of losing consumers, who can easily download pirated music free of cost.Moreover, since a major share (about $0. 70) of the revenue per song goes to the re cord companies that have the right to the songs and the iTunes Music Store gets a very small share of the profit from the downloaded music, the company cannot afford to lose profits from the sales of iPods. A complicated pricing structure poses a great risk of losing the customers to other companies, which will adversely affect the sales of the iPods also. With the music companies tying up with other competitors such as Amazon. om, who sell the music catalogs wrapped in digital rights management software, implementing the complicated pricing, would only mean losing the sales and promoting the unethical practice of unauthorized free downloads. Apple’s pricing objective of flat pricing is not directed at maximizing revenues due to the sale of downloaded music. The company is enticed to sell the downloaded music at low prices in order to promote the sale of iPods. Apple follows a profit maximizing policy for the iPods revenue stream and so follows a stable policy for the attract ing the customers by a flat price for the downloaded music.However, the record companies are only concerned about maximizing revenues from the downloaded music and they are not concerned about the revenue from the sale of iPod. The iTunes Music store is a service that Apple offers to its consumers who wish to buy the third party music and audio books over the internet. Moreover, with no subscription fee and broad range of personal rights being offered with the music content, including playing the music on an unlimited number of iPods, Apple is clearly not focused at generating increased revenues through music downloads (Forms 10-K).Apple’s ability to control the pricing of downloaded music is likely to change in the future. Third party content providers require Apple to provide variable pricing policy along with adequate security mechanism. If the company continues to focus on revenue maximization of iPod hardware sales considering the music content download as a peripheral b usiness activity, the recording companies might get agitated due to the absence in increased revenues.The company might lose its leverage over music companies owing to the increasing competition. With other companies like Amazon ready to sell the music with embedded security features, the music companies are likely to collaborate with companies thus adversely affecting iTunes Music store business.References Forms 10-K, United States Securities and Exchange Commission: Apple Computer, Inc. Retrieved on August 18, 2010 from http://www. sec. gov/Archives/edgar/data/320193/000104746904035975/a2147337z10-k. htm

And of Clay Are We Created

In And of Clay are We Created, the author uses Acuzena to show Rolf how they are alike, and show how everyone has their own clay they are buried in. The author, Isabel Allende, wrote this story after seeing an event similar to this on the news in 1985. In the story, when Rolf finds Acuzena trapped in clay, he sees a lot more. This girl is trapped with no way out. No hope. All he needs is a pump to rescue her but no one will bring one. It makes him see himself in her, trapped in memories, trapped in the past.We are all buried by something. Rolf was buried by memories of the war and what it did to his family, the rage of his father, and his guilt for the death of his sister. Everyone has things of the past that keep us from moving on, the way that Acuzena was held by the bodies of her brothers and sisters, which kept her from being pulled out of the quagmire. The author was trying to show us how in life, there will always be avalanches. We are just responsible for the way we deal with them.The title, And of Clay are We Created, means that we all will have experiences throughout life, but we have the ability to be transformed from it. It can also be a spiritual reference to God creating from clay and then they ended covered in clay. The story really shows how someone can go their whole life hiding from something that they will never escape from until they dig in and climb out. It also shows how Rolf thought that he had left his past behind, but it resurfaced in this experience. He had to come to realize that his only way out of this was to accept death as Acuzena did in the end.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Introduction to Marketing and Creative Product Promotion

Introduction to Marketing and Creative Product Promotion NME The New Musical Express also known as the NME is a popular music publication in the United Kingdom. NME has published weekly since March 1952. It started as a music newspaper, and gradually moved toward a magazine during the 1980s. Market PenetrationMarket Penetration that NME has done is created a magazine yearly subscription this is market penetration because the product is not being changed its just offering a new way of being able to purchase the product. It still appeals to the same market and people who read and by the magazine. Product DevelopmentOne way that NME has developed its products are to host stages at festivals, with bands that they support. They advertise their products through this stage and at Reading and Leeds festival these having become well known stages. | Market DevelopmentA type of market development that NME has done is creating NME. com, a website which holds the same content as the magazine but appeals to people who use the internet a lot rather than buying a magazine. | Diversification One way that NME has used diversification is by sponsoring a UK tour known as the NME Tour.These tours appeal to different people and it is a completely new product. | Existing Products New Products Survival Strategies NME stays on top of the market by without fail having a weekly edition to the magazine with new and exclusive information in the music scene. It gives updates on top flight bands, as well as looking at new and upcoming music artists which makes it different to many other magazines. The magazine also runs regular competitions to win tickets to music events, which appeals to the customers as it is a music magazine.NME also advertises a large amount and has its own radio station and TV programme, which they use to advertise their main products being the magazines and ticket sales. Relationship Marketing NME uses relationship marketing in a way by creating monthly subscriptions t o avid readers at a cheaper price. The weekly price of the magazine is ? 2. 20 however you can get a monthly subscription of the magazine for just ? 6. 50 a month which annually saves the customer 36%. This is a good saving and customers can be enticed to subscribe by the savings, also the longer you subscribe to the magazine the better savings you gain.Another way NME uses relationship marketing is by offering customers free CD’s and posters with the magazine this makes the customers feel as if they are getting more for their money and keeps them more happy as they are receiving more than they usually pay for when buying the magazine. Branding NME uses brand extension by creating one of magazine specials which cost more and include large amounts specific information these magazines appeal mostly to people how are interested in that certain topic.NME uses brand positioning because it is the only magazine that looks at up and coming bands instead of just well known artists, it is also mainly focused on the alternative genre of music. NME builds their brand by having events such as the NME awards this gains a large amount of publicity and helps NME gain customers and also informs the public about the music that they report on. Wilkinson Wilkinson is a British high street discount chain with over 300 stores, selling primarily home wares and household goods.Founded in 1930 Wilkinson Cash Stores by James Kemsey Wilkinson, the company has remained largely in the hands of the founding family since. Market PenetrationAn example of Wilkinson’s Market penetration is that in the 1950s there was a rise in the use of labour saving devices and DIY. Wilkinson responded by making this type of product the focus of its sales. They did this by ensuring that their products were a lot cheaper than the rest of the market. | Product DevelopmentOne way that Wilkinson has developed its products are In the 1960s customers wanted more convenience shopping.Wilkinson started selling groceries and supermarket goods and created the Wilko brand. In the 1980s Wilkinson extended its range of low-cost products to include quality clothing, toys, toiletries and perfumes. | Market DevelopmentA way that Wilkinson have developed there market is in 1995 it opened a central distribution centre in Worksop, serving stores in the north of England and in 2004, a new distribution centre opened in Wales. This is because they are creating new markets by opening more stores across the UK. | Diversification In 2005 Wilkinson launched its Internet shopping service, offering over 800,000 product lines for sale online.It created new products to sell online which will appeal to a different market. | Existing Products New Products Relationship Marketing Wilkinson wanted to satisfy customers with their needs met by the Wilkinson range of products. A marketing campaign was launched which focused on a range of promotional tactics, designed to appeal to university students. Wilkinso n attended fresher’s fairs and gave out free goody bags with sample products directly to students. Direct mail flyers were sent to homes and student halls prior to students arriving.Advertisements with a fun theme for example, an advert showing frying pans as tennis racquets, offering discounts of 15% with first purchase using the online store. They were given gift vouchers and free wall planners. The challenge was to get students into Wilkinson stores. The opportunity was to capture a new customer group at an early stage and provide essential items all year round. This would lead to a committed customer group and secure business. Survival Strategies Wilkinson attempts to stay on top of its market by always having the cheapest products which maintain a good quality for the cost they are.Their main competitors are places such as Poundland however these shops are 99p stores therefore Wilkinson has the edge over these shops as it is deemed as better quality products because they are more expensive however still cheaper than majority of stores. They also now offer home delivery and online shopping compared to smaller competitors none of them do this, so they are also providing better service than other stores. They regularly hold offers for customers making the shop even more appealing using BOGOF and half price techniques to draw in customers. BrandingWilkinson use their own brands to appeal to customers these are more cheaper products and they create a range of different products such as dinnerware to towels. They call these products Wilkinson Premium Ranges which make them seem like they are a cheap alternative to other places and the name premium makes them seem that they are at a higher quality. Wilkinson stores are of an average quality and serve the purpose in which they need to, products are on display in store for customers to use and the store are set out into sections being food, home ware, health and beauty and children’s toys.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Salvador Dali and Pablo Picasso Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Salvador Dali and Pablo Picasso - Term Paper Example The essay "Salvador Dali and Pablo Picasso" discovers the Salvador Dali's and Pablo Picasso's art. Both Salvador Dali and Pablo Picasso are well-known Spanish painters. They have not only accomplished a number of masterpieces that gained worldwide acceptance but they also received considerable criticisms that make them more famous. Dali, whose works usually deal with surrealism, is noted for absurdity. In his painting, Soft Construction with Boiled Beans, Dali presents an image of a monster tearing itself apart. This oil painting is usually referred to as a premonition of the Spanish Civil War because Dali made it six months before the war broke out. The painting, considered to be a surrealist painting, measures 100 cm x 99cm., and is currently housed in Philadelphia Art Museum of Art. Dali is famous for surrealism in his works. Convincingly the surreal nature of Dali’s images has led him to fame, but according to Saladyga, his â€Å"eccentric manner and attention-grabbing pu blic actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork† (15). Specifically, Dali’s Soft Construction with Boiled Beans has gained him both positive and negative commentaries. Nevertheless, the subject, style, and symbols that he used make the painting a real masterpiece as it evokes the cultural and historical experience of the Spanish. Pablo Picasso is likewise a world-renowned Spanish painter and is even more famous and respected than Dali in the visual art scene. He is well-known for cubism, a style he himself made popular. With his craftsmanship and hard work, Picasso can be considered the most prolific artist not only of his time but even of all times. Throughout his lifetime, he produced a total of 6,000 paintings, 165 of which he painted in 1969 alone, when he was 88 years old (Whitman 53). He started painting at two years old and produced sketches, sculptures, lithography, and even plays before he died at 92 (Whitman 53). Guernica is one of his masterpieces . This oil painting, which measures 11  feet tall and 25.6 feet wide, was painted in 1937, two days after the bombing of Guernica. To date, it reminds the Spanish of the bombing of the Basque town of Guernica by some German bombers who were allegedly supporters of General Franco during the Spanish Civil War. At present, the painting is housed in Museo Reina Sofia, Madrid but a number of replications including the one in the United Nations have been on display worldwide. Both paintings mentioned reflect the painters’ view of the Spanish Civil War. According to Beevor (19), the war started on July 17, 1936 and lasted until April 1, 1939. It began after the proclamation of opposition by some Spanish generals led by Jose Sanjurjo against the leadership of the then President Manuel Azana. The group of generals were supported by a number of groups, including the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Carlists, and Fascist Falange, which were strong political parties at th e time. Hence, the move resulted in political and military warfare. Later, the government obtained support from Germany, Italy and Portugal, thus heightening the conflict especially with the bombing of Guernica, Basque Country on April 26, 1937 by German and Italian troops. Guernica is said to be a marketplace, thus many people were hurt during the bombing, especially since that day was a market day.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

What are the Key Factors for Success (KFS) that companies in the Essay

What are the Key Factors for Success (KFS) that companies in the industry must satisfy in order to ensure survival and seek competitive advantages - Essay Example More over, it has to be accessible to the consumers. Consumers like purchasing their products from easily accessible industries where they can return them in case of malfunction. This generates confidence in the organization’s products. On the other hand, consumers have to be accessible to increase sales. Without proper access to the market, an industry may be unable to sell the anticipated amount, or may incur higher costs of distribution. The choice of the business type is of utmost importance. Investors need to identify a business and analyze the pay back period to ensure that they settle on the most applicable investment decision. It requires an analysis of the kind of consumers in the market to ascertain that the products offered by the industry match the needs of the consumers. This is significant in developing positioning strategies for the products. It is also important to ensure that products are durable, especially for a newly established business. Once investors bring their capital in to the market, they are usually faced with problems, which are common for beginners. They are initially not competitive and therefore might take long to attract customers, hence the quantity of produce needs to be controlled until the business establishes in the market. For durable products, more products may be produced to be sold in the long-run. The products should be satisfactory to the health standards. The most risky occurrence in an organization may be the revocation of an operating license. This is because it might happen when the industry is already in operation, having produced a substantial amount of commodities. This may lead to a heavy loss, hence the need to satisfy the health and safety requirements in the workplace, as well as the recommended standards in regard to quality (Hannagan, 2007 p 67). Consumers are usually sensitive to quality, especially for emerging products. The investor needs to satisfy consumer demands at

Leadership -final exam Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Leadership -final exam - Essay Example With differences in attitudes and aptitudes, it is possible to ensure diversity in work process and also to provide better assistance by enhancing the talents of the individuals for achieving certain desired objectives. Moreover, in the age of cultural diversity, multiculturalism is required to deal with diversity successfully, through the total quality diversity procedure (Argyris, 1991). In the context of managing diversity, the concept of leadership plays a pivotal role. For the successful functioning of an organization, it is required to employ efficient and competent employees for ensuring better resources to the organizations in particular and also for making an effort to achieve desired objectives. To attain the desired objectives, diverse organizations provide different learning capabilities as well as resources for effective functioning of the organization. Leadership Style In order to recognize the aspect of managing diversity in the organizational context, a contemporary l eader i.e. Howard Schultz, the Chairman and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Starbucks is selected. The leadership style, decision making style and diversity management strategies of Howard Schultz has enabled Starbucks to substantially deal with the challenges posed due to the aspect of diversity by developing teams with adequate efficiency. It is worth mentioning in this context that effective teams being steered with discipline is considered as one of the most significant rudiments of successful business (Katzenbach & Smith, 2005). The leadership style incorporated by Howard Schultz has focused on introducing healthcare related benefits to part-time employees who work for 20 hours in a week. This decision was resisted by the board members owing to the fear of increase in overall operational cost. Howard Schultz as a leader has been able to reinvigorate the employees and mainly focused on issues that are crucial for the welfare of the organization. Those critical issues are to be handled by the top level for better implementation and to enhance profitability as well as productivity (Marquis, Lim, Scott, Margaret, & Kavanagh, 2008). However, as a leader he has also made a firm decision to share the information in a horizontal manner related to organizational aspects with the employees which has in turn enabled him to generate employee motivation. It has enabled employees to have a major contribution in organizational strategic objectives which has significantly facilitated the organization to manage diversity in the workplace. Thus, it can be ascertained that Howard Schultz has followed a transactional leadership style for ensuring effectiveness in the organization to deal with strategic challenges such as managing diversity. As can be witnessed with reference to the leadership traits deciphered by Howard Schultz, he can be observed as significantly focused on building enthusiastic relationships with his employees. Following a Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) leadership style, he also attempted to negotiate the roles and the responsibilities of the employees segregating them into

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Read the article first, then answer the question Assignment

Read the article first, then answer the question - Assignment Example Public praise and recognition are examples of intrinsic rewards, while tangible rewards in the workplace such as promotions are examples of extrinsic rewards. A good leader is able to inspire others through his actions, words, and job achievements. In workplaces were the bosses show favoritism employees often get discourage and lose motivation. Felt inequity in the workplace is a factor that destroys motivation. Equity theory states that employees will react based on their felt perception of fairness and justice (Managementstudyguide). Motivating the employees is in the best interest of the manager or leader. Employees that are motivated are more likely able to achieve job satisfaction. â€Å"In order for an organization to be successful they must continuously ensure the satisfaction of their employees† (Arizona). Companies that have motivated staffs suffer from lower employee turnover rate. Losing employees is not in the best interest of companies since employee churn hurts the company in terms of training cost, productivity, and recruiting expenses. In the case study Bonuses can Backfire the company made the mistake of relying solely on bonuses to motivate employees. The use of rewards can reduce the employees’ intrinsic interest in the task they are supposed to perform. A more effective strategy is for a manager to combine the use of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. It is important for employees to get the moral support of their superiors. Often intangible rewards such as telling a worker that they did a good job at the end of the shift can inspire the employee. Sometimes employees cheat the system and act in unethical and illicit manners in order to obtain a financial reward. Kenneth Fay, former CEO of Enron, is an example of an executive that falsified financial information to obtain an economic benefit. His bonuses were tied to the financial performance of the corporation. Companies must never

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Reading reflection juvies Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Reading reflection juvies - Essay Example One such advantage is that a jury takes the responsibility of administering justice to the minor. This is advantageous to the juveniles because the process will promote transparency during the trial. Members of a jury can be sympathetic to juveniles, leading to acquittals, or lighter punishments. However, the disadvantages outweigh the advantages of transferring the juveniles to an adult court system. In an adult court, chances are high that juveniles will get a harsher punishment, in comparison to the punishment they would get in a juvenile court. This is because an adult court treats them as adults; therefore, they qualify to receive the same punishments an adult will receive in the given trial. These children will suffer from stigma which emanates from a trial and a conviction under an adult court. The effect is that their self-esteem becomes low, leading to lack of confidence and self-worthiness. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that trial under an adult court exposes the crimes of these children, and this further leads to erosion of their confidence. Basing on these arguments, it is not good or ethical for a minor to be subjected to an adult court process. This will make them to be socially vulnerable, and impossible to reform them. They will suffer stigma, and their self-esteem will be undermined. At the adult prisons, these children will be vulnerable to manipulations by adult offenders. They will learn new ways of crime, coming out of the system as criminals, instead of rehabilitated offenders. However, some people would disagree with my opinion. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that a juvenile who commits a serious offense such as murder and homicide, should be treated as an adult. This will have an effect of deterring minor offenders from committing such kind of crimes. However, this argument is baseless because these offenders are always ignorant on issues that deal with law. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that children as young as 13 years who commit serious crimes shoul d be transferred to an adult court. However, in my own opinion, this age bracket is too low, because their minds are not yet fully developed to understand the justice system. This is also their age of adolescence; thus, they are vulnerable to act in ways that the society does not accept. On this note, should a waiver occur, the best age is 16 years. This is because at this age, the child is above the juvenile rehabilitation system and he can sustain the pressures that are characterized by a trial at an adult court. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that crimes commited by juveniles that ought to be taken to an adult court are murder, homicide cases, rape, carjacking, robbery with violence and criminal gang intimidations. Marcovitz (2012) denotes that during this process, there are two people who can determine whether a minor should be transferred to an adult court for trial. These are the prosecutor and the juvenile judge. A prosecutor can apply for waiver from the courts, but the judge afte r looking at the evidence presented, and the background of the child, he can decide to transfer the case to an adult court, or retain it at the juvenile court. These transfers should not be automatic upon application by the prosecutor, because prosecutors can miss out on important factors that made the child to commit such kind of a crime because of his interest in the case. On this note, an independent person is required to make the decision, and this person is the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Summary and Critical Analysis Marketing and Business Development Essay

Summary and Critical Analysis Marketing and Business Development - Essay Example Process: The author described the process as a two way communication between the buyer and seller, which if remain successful and satisfying to the buyer leads to agreement between the parties for rendering services. The author also described Negotiation and provide suggestion for reaching to a win-win solution. The author further subdivided this process in the following divisions: The Buyer Decision making Process: After presentation and other presales activities grant the buyer necessary time for decision making as they have to think about the alternatives and make price benefit analysis. Do not stress the buyers by making numerous and do never let them think that you are begging for the sale of your services. Buyer Demographic: The author also provided guidance about the buyers by categorizing them in Four generations, the mature, the baby boomers, generation X and generation Y describing their characteristics for their understanding. Features and Benefits: As sample of services cannot be provided to the clients for inspection. The tool that is available to interior designers is to describe the features of their services and the benefits that can be obtained from rendering of their services tactfully for obtaining successful sale agreements. Critical Analysis of the Chapter: The author provided suggestions and explanations but limited them to interior design service only. Some suggestions provided are not cost effective and targeted (cold calling) and some could be considered illegal (e-mails). The suggestions provided are somehow for ideal conditions. The ideas given in the chapter lack sequencing. There basis for buyer demographic is vague. In previous chapter total sales process were discussed and suggestion were provided on each item in the process. The most important part in that process was presentation to the potential client which itself is another process and a decisive factor for the both the buyer and seller of services. Therefore the author

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Market Demand Essay Example for Free

Market Demand Essay The calculation above shows that Bonia Group practice elastic demand for the previous 10 years. This is mainly due to strong competition among competitors. Bonia Group, which target the mid-high price range market encounter a few international branding competitor like Calvin Klein, DKNY, Paris Hilton, Armani Exchange and Lacoste in the market and were highly competitive for years. Bonia Group was advised to avoid price increase for the coming years as sales figures for the past 10 years show that Bonia Group were in elastic demand. In order to increase yearly sales amount, the Group could actually remain or decrease price as in elasticity demand, sales growth is oppositely proportional to price. They are always encourage to remain or decrease the price, and at the same time remain the quality and material of goods to boost up the sales quickly and to show immediate results. Besides that, the mid-high price range in Bonia Group show that their products are actually inferior goods. In order to overcome the coming economic crisis and recession, lower down the price range to normal goods is another way to avoid for profit losing. Economists predict that beginning from this year, it would be another recession coming ahead. During recession, the average salary for population will decrease and unemployment increase. People will try to find out substitute for expensive goods. Thus, Bonia as an inferior goods brand will encounter sales decrease during recession. It is good to change from inferior goods to normal goods so that they can still gaining profit during recession.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

The Culture Of Cambodia Cultural Studies Essay

The Culture Of Cambodia Cultural Studies Essay There is a different work hours between government and private offices. For government offices, the routine work hours is on Monday- Saturday since 7.30am until 4.30pm with breaking for the lunch time while private offices normally have no break by use working on ones shift instead to keep longer hours for example; shops, supermarket, etc. Cambodian have customs and tradition to have long and suitable relationships in any business. They trust having proper behavior is more important than work performance for example; if you are honest, responsible for your tasks, polite and respect to the superiors or the higher powers, etc. The higher power will concern and give some rewards to the good employees such as money or power. To give and opinion, Cambodian employees prefer to follow the superiors opinion than against them. Cambodians prefer to improve their English skills to enhance themselves to the internationally therefore, the English books, magazines or language tapes are popular to be the gifts for any business. Shoes and socks are unsuitable for the gifts because cultures they believe that the foot is the lowest of their body according to Buddhist cultures. Cambodia has a long history of culture and civilization which mainly influenced by Indian country. Notice from the Cambodians life involve with the religions of Buddhism and also Hinduism. Cambodia population around 95 percent is Theravada Buddhist according to relies on reasonableness, personal experience, and critical analysis. This is the main Buddhist in Southeast Asia including Cambodia which affected Cambodians culture and etiquette in nowadays and the other are Islam, atheism, or animism respectively. For example; the conceptual ideas about karma, collectivism, and saving face plays and important roles in the daily life of Cambodians. For karma, this idea involves with the rationality and law of action. If you do something, something will be happened follow things that you did. For collectivism, Cambodians prefer give priority to family, group, and society rather than the individual. This idea also concerns about saving face which tries to avoid losing someones face in any transactions. Losing face can be occurred when someone is criticized or is given compliments in the public. Therefore, if you want to do business with Cambodia, you should be aware of this action to assure that you are not misunderstanding this concept. The followings are the tips for saving Face; Normally the monks in Cambodia always highly respect in the society because they are faithful and admirable. They have similar ways to Thailand for example; they dressed in the color robes, women must avoid touching or handing to the monks even though she is a monks mother. To have a conversation with the monks, you should press the hands together at the chest  level for showing respect to the monks. For the daily routine of monks, they are allowed to eat only to times per days which are in the morning and lunch. Normally, when the Cambodians greet, they usually bow their head to show respect with press the hands together at chest level which is quite similar to Thailand. This gesture is known as Som Pas. However, when they greet with the foreigners, they usually adapt the greeting of western style by shaking hands. Typically, it is improper for the men to shake hands with Khmer women and to hug, kiss, or touch the body of a Khmer woman are not allowed and unsuitable in this society. To address the name of Cambodians, they use Lok instead of Mr. for the man and Lok Srey instead of Ms. or Mrs. for the woman before the first name and surname. Proper dress is an important for Cambodians for both men and women. It can show their position in the society for example, shorts are considered as the proper dress only for school children and it is not proper for both men and women if they want to go inside the official places or temples. Doing business in Cambodia also consider about the proper dress. Generally, to do business or working in Cambodia men wear collared shirts and long pants. For women, they wear dress or blouse instead short skirts and should not show their shoulders. It is a typically in Cambodian society to bring the gift for the host if you are invited to have lunch or dinner at someones home. Normally they give flowers, fruit, cookies, etc. Knives or sharp things are not popular to be the gifts. Moreover, gifts are preferred to wrap with colorful paper rather than the white because it means the sadness or mourning. Moreover, when you want to give the gifts, you should use both hands for showing care and gifts are not opened when you received. Cambodians emphasis on the formal dress when they are doing business for both domestic and international transactions, contact with the government sectors or enter to the official places. Moreover, having proper and formal dress show the respect to the people who are doing business with or the places that you will go there. Normally, both men and women wear a lightweight tropical suit in formal situations. Shorts and skirts are not suitable in the public. For less formal occasions, it is enough to wear casual shirts and blouses with collars. Cambodians culture in communication is very indirect and non-verbal behavior therefore, the person who want to do business in Cambodia should understand about this culture and be aware of it for example; they prefer silent when they disagree instead of complain in front of others, smiling in Cambodia has many meanings not only in the positive ways but also in the negative ways, etc. Time is also important in doing business here. If you arrive late, it means you ignore and do not respect to the person who you are doing business with. Business Cards Presenting the card in doing business is general in Cambodia and it should be exchanged at the beginning of introduction. For the business card, it is better if one side is translated into Khmer. When you present your card or receive the card, remember to use the right hand or both hands. Meeting and Greeting The followings are some guides for meeting and greeting in Cambodia; For Group meeting you should introduce people in order to rank. Handshakes are general however you should be careful not to be too tight which can be considered as aggressive. It is the tradition that if the man is doing business with the woman, they should keep distance to avoid misinterpret from the others because Cambodians has a strongly traditional in sexuality for example eye contact should be kept to a minimum. Cambodians address them with the title Lok for a man and Lok Srey for a woman with the first name only or both the first and the last name. CULTURAL DIMENSIONS Nowadays the world is separated in different countries and culture and many people still dont know much about their international business partners and how to deal with them in the right way. Therefore business people should need to know how they can cope with the foreign partners. This part is emphasized on the cultural dimensions and communication in South East Asia including Lao and Cambodia. It is an important to know about the fundamental facts of these countries if you want to do successful business in SE Asia. Cultural Dimensions from Hofstede High power distance Societies have significant gaps between the higher power and the weak. There is related distinguished to unfairness between the rich and the poor. High level of uncertainty avoidance The cultures in SE Asia tend to reduce risk and ensure financial securities, many written rules, less risk taking by managers, lower labor turnover and less ambitious employees. Collectivism People are very interested in long lasting relationships and give priority to a group, family or society. They care each other in change for loyalty and tend to show less individual. High feminity (low masculinity index) Care each other and quality of life for both men and women. Managers give their employees more credit if they have high responsibility for their tasks and allow them more freedom.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Predictive Capabilities of the Simulex Model

Predictive Capabilities of the Simulex Model Introduction The purpose of this study is to analyse the predictive capabilities of the Simulex model, used to simulate the movement of people in evacuation simulations. Other evacuation models used within the fire engineering community, i.e. Firewind WayOut and simple hand flow calculations, provide quick and easy access to a reasonable estimate for a required movement time for egress in a building. This study will help to reveal whether the additional data used within the Simulex methodology aids the user in reaching a more accurate overall estimate. This will be done by carrying out a number of evacuation scenarios and comparing the results collected using the Firewind WayOut model and hand calculations. A multi storey hotel tower will be used to carry out the study. The outcome of the study will help to calibrate the components of the human behaviour in the Simulex model, as it is suggested that Simulex enables you to simulate occupant behaviour in the event of a building evacuation (IES, Sim ulex simulation of occupant evacuation). A considerable amount of study has been carried out on all aspects of human evacuation from emergency situations, and the affects of human behaviour on evacuation times can be seen as a major factor in terms of life safety. The majority of movement models to date take into account little consideration of the behavioural aspects of the occupants under emergency and focus their work on the flow of occupants. An evaluation of the results gathered in this study will help to show whether Simulex takes occupants-occupants interaction into account. Studies carried out in the past have revealed that occupant evacuation times are highly dependent on their perceived threat of the fire event. Appearance, proximity, propagation, time, and toxic gases of the fire threat also tend to predispose the individual to a higher level of behavioral activity, again depending upon the individuals perception of these threat variables. Thus, occupants located in close proximity to a developing fire, and with clear sensual links with smoke and heat, are likely to react more speedily than those who are reacting solely on alarm signals (John L. Bryan, Human Behavior and Fire). The importance of such an analysis tool is becoming essential in building design as regulation moves to a more performance based system. The purpose of this dissertation is to outline the methodology used within the Simulex model. The outputs determined by each of the models can then be compared along with the hand calculation work carried out. A sensitivity analysis will be performed for the Simulex model and this will help provide a clear evaluation of its predictive potential. Aim To evaluate the predictive capabilities of the Simulex movement model by carrying out both sensitivity and comparative analysis from results gained using the Firewind WayOut movement models and simple hand flow calculations. To gauge the effectiveness of the additional methodological approach taken by Simulex in gaining an overall more accurate estimate. Objectives Carry out a literature review of papers available which cover all aspects of building evacuation. Estimate crowd densities for use as input assumptions for Simulex, Firewind WayOut and hand calculations. Evaluate the model outputs and make a comparison between the methodologies adopted by each of the models. Conclusions should be formed on the basis of this evaluation. Carry out a sensitive analysis of both the Simulex and WayOut models. This can be achieved by altering the user input data to see how this effects the overall evacuation times. Gauge the predictive capabilities of each of the models in terms of how all aspects of building evacuation are taken into account. Investigate how the Simulex model attempts to deal with merging behaviours in a staircase. This will be carried out in reference to the information gained from previous work detailed in the literature review Provide concluding statements with reference to the results gained using the Simulex model. This should include an insight into whether the results gained using this method provide a more accurate estimate of the likely real life evacuation time. Methodology Carry out a literature review of the existing information available which relates to building evacuation and evacuation modeling. Factors to consider include a detailed evaluation of all aspects which affect the evacuation procedures of occupants i.e. affects of alarms, pre-movement times, human behaviour, crowd dynamics, and travel times. A study will be required relating to the current scope of movement models used within the fire engineering community. The methodologies used within the Simulex and the Firewind WayOut models will be studied and form part of the literature review. This will highlight all the differences and similarities between the methodologies incorporated into the tools. This information will be of significant importance when analysing the output data and forming any conclusions. Choose a suitable building design which can be used to carry out the study. The chosen building has been selected as the multi-storey hotel tower, Shibboleth project. Further information of the building will be provided further on in the text. CAD drawings of the Shibboleth hotel tower are required as this design will form the basis of the study. A collection of CAD drawings showing the Shibboleth floor plans will be used as a base to creating these geometries. The CAD drawings will be stripped down (removing inanimate objects i.e. furniture etc) to reveal only boundary layers i.e. walls, floors, etc. These barriers are those in which occupants are unable to pass through. A sensitivity analysis of Simulex and Firewind WayOut models will be carried out. This requires some factor of validation data to be collected by varying single point of input data and analysing how greatly they affect the overall results. By independently altering all the required input data, it is possible to monitor the effect each of the inputs has on the model outputs. This analysis will be carried out for each of the models. Run a mock evacuation using the Simulex model. To achieve this all CAD drawing will be turned into DXF files and inputted into the model. Staircases and floor plans can be linked and occupants will be added relevant to the room sizes as uses (Occupant loading will be calculated for the building and agents will be calculated and added accordingly). Run a mock evacuation using the Firewind WayOut model. The CAD drawings will again be used to measure all lengths and areas in the building. The occupant loading will be kept similar to those used in the Simulex calculation. Carry out hand calculations for the building. The process which will be followed is provided in the SFPE Handbook (SFPE Handbook, Section 3, Chapter 14; Emergency Movement). All input data used will be maintained from the previous work carried out in the computer models. This enables a conclusion to be reached as to whether the innovative tool can be used under the performance based regulatory system and form part of a successful fire engineered solution. Gaining a clear understanding of such information will allow the user to evaluate the results in a more efficient manner. An exhaustive analysis of the output data produced by both movement models will be carried out by the author. A conclusion will then be reached as to whether the FDS+Evac model can provide similar data as the movement model selected as the comparative tool. As this Simulex model is used presently within the fire engineering community to perform evacuation analysis on a number of real projects, it can then be assumed that such a tool supports the engineers performance based design solution. The results will also provide the evidence which will be required to evaluate whether the FDS+Evac model takes into account the threat perceived by the occupants in close proximity to a fire event, and incorporates this into the evacuation time for these occupants. Scope and Limitations Only two models are being reviewed in the study. The university has both Firewind WayOut and Simulex available for use at present and no other models were available at the time this study was carried out. The Simulex model is not used extensively through the course at the university and as a result the user had limited experience in operating it at the time of the study. The modelling work, i.e. measurements of lengths and areas, was carried out entirely from the drawing provided; no site visits etc were made to the building. Only one scenario has been run to carry out the study, a greater timescale for the work would have allowed a more exhaustive study, i.e. greater test cases, to be carried out. As the methodologies in each of the models vary slightly, it was only possible to minimise the extent to which occupant characteristics varied, but it was not possible to eliminate it altogether. Literature Review Regulatory Perspective As architects, designers and engineers continue to push the boundaries of building design, the regulatory system in Scotland continues to move towards a more performance based system. This system allows all parties involved in the design stage a far greater amount of freedom, i.e. promote innovation and limit the impact of regulation (S. Kipp, 1999), when ensuring a building design meets the requirements of the relevant codes. Professionals working within the built environment are now able to incorporate much more of their experience and judgement when developing a design than when following the outdated prescriptive approach, which were conceived for typical buildings. As a result of this, a number of tools have been developed within each discipline which allows each innovative design to be exhaustively tested, ensuring an adequate level of safety is provided before they are incorporated into any building design. For a fire engineer, many of these tools require computational technologies to perform a number of these tasks. Fire modelling is becoming more and more involved in the design stage of many large and complex projects all over the world. A number of models are available, varying in complexity, to carry out any necessary analysis within a number of complex spaces. They allow engineers to evaluate many fire safety related features of a building design before they are finalised, and ensure that any areas of issues with the design can be resolve before a project reaches the construction phase, as altering designs at this point can be extremely expensive and time consuming for all parties. In the UK, the current emphasis for escape design sets out to limit the distance and therefore time in which occupants are subjected to surrounding which will increase the risk of alarm or injury. The current timeframe in which occupants should have to travel from their place or origin and reach a place of safety is 2 minutes 30 seconds. This time had been calculated as a factor of the maximum allowable travel distance and the average walking speed of an occupant. Storey exit widths are sized assuming a specific flow of 80 persons/minute/metre clear width and a flow time of 2.5 minutes (Boyce et al, 2009). The time which is required to clear a floor is an important factor which must be considered to achieve an effective fire safety engineered design. The functional standards allow an engineer to carry out comparative analysis between the required safe egress time (RSET) and the available safe egress time (ASET). A building is deemed to provide an acceptable solution if the time required for egress is less than the time available before conditions are judged untenable by some factor of safety. This requirement is subject to an exhaustive analysis being carried out by a suitable professional, on all aspects of the design which will affect occupant egress. Human Behaviour in Fires A lot of research has been undertaken within the fire engineering community to gain as much understanding as possible of the factors affecting human behaviour when occupants are faced with emergency evacuation procedures in the built environment. John L. Bryan has covered a lot of work studying person-fire interaction and how occupant awareness can affect pre-movement times D. Canter has done a lot of work in gathering data from a number of sources to paint a clearer picture of the evacuation process. E. R. Galea covered a study dealing with human behaviour during evacuation of the world trade centre attack in 2001. Jonathan D Sime has produced work dealing with peoples ability to way find in a building, his work has shown that it may be more effective to incorporate escape routes into the general circulation routes as this will increase occupant familiarity with evacuation routes. Lars Benthorn provided an insight into how people evaluate information and subsequently choose their escape path. There are many more professionals who have done excellent work in analysing human behaviour in emergency situations and all the information collected is useful as it can then be incorporated into the design of evacuation tools. Building evacuation takes on a number of stages and involves a timeframe from the incipient stage of a fire right through until the last occupant has reached a place of safety. Human behaviour can affect both pre-movement and movement times, therefore it is essential to have a clear understanding of how to adapt an evacuation design to maximise its potential in life safety terms. The time to evacuate a building is a combination of several stages, these stages are: Detection time; Alarm time; Pre-movement time, (this is a combination of recognition and response time); and Travel time. The time taken for each of these stages of the evacuation process is dependent on the occupants response and behaviour. Figure 1: Factors involved in assessing the total escape time. (CIBSE Guide E: Fire safety engineering design approaches, 4-7). Pre-movement Time Distribution The pre-movement time of a building is the time for occupants to react to the alarm signal and begin their evacuation process. There are many factors which can affect the pre-movement times of occupants and these will be highlighted later in this text. In multi storey, multiple use occupancies, such as the one selected as part of the study, it can be assumed that not all occupants will have comparable pre-movement times, and for this reason it is good practice to study the appropriate time distribution curves in order to provide an accurate account of an expected pre-movement time in a building simulation. Purser et al, 1999, suggest from their work that Once the first few occupants have begun to move, the pre-movement times for the remainder of the occupants in an enclosure tend to follow a logarithmic–normal frequency time distribution. The shape of the above curves follow a typical pre-movement tome distribution following what has been observed historically; the initial delay of start up highlights the time taken for the first of the occupants to make the preliminary movements towards their chosen exit. This is followed by a rapid increase in frequency as the majority of others tend to initiate their travel phase. The long tail of the curve illustrates the last remaining occupants who will begin their travel period which will signify the end of the total pre-movement phase of the evacuation process. The above distributions are fit well for open plan occupancies where occupants have a clear view of the majority of other persons in the premises. In a building hosting a large number of enclosures, it can be assumed that the time distribution will be far wider than shown in the above diagram. This is due to the limited visibility which would be available for occupants in such a premises; the herding effect as occupants will be reduced as they would have less chance of grouping together and following the actions of the first occupants who move. Purser et al, 1999 , suggests that a range of 20-30 minutes would be more suitable for a multi occupancy building with sleeping risk (such as the Shibboleth hotel tower used to carry out the study). Many different factors will influence how a person will react and the decisions they make will determine their evacuation process. It can be very difficult to obtain real evacuation behavior; real evacuations may be undertaken by people who are unaware of the actual urgency to escape. They may perceive the alarm as a drill (Jake Pauls, 2003) People are often unaware that the alarm they hear is not a false one and so they will proceed to evacuate as they see fit to do so. Stopping to gather up personal belongings or only beginning to evacuate when others around them do. People have both reaction times and pre-movement times, reaction time is the time taken to perceive the alarm and decide to take action; and the pre-movement time is the time that elapses while the occupant is preparing to leave. L. Benthorn (1999): People usually choose to leave a building the same way they came in, even if this is a poorer alternative than other available. Within the field of behavioural science, it is pointed out that people often choose the known before the unknown, which would explain the above behaviour. Occupants in a building will tend to head for the exit them came in through not only are they familiar with this exit it but it will lead them to a place they will recognise. This is particularly true for those people who are not familiar with their surroundings. People will continue to do this and follow the crowd until they are either faced with the fire or are given further information. It has been suggested that incorporating evacuation routes wherever possible into the main circulation routes at the design stage will aim to optimise the effectiveness of the evacuation strategy. This is due to the fact that occupants tend to use a familiar route. The occupant characteristics that should be considered in performing an evacuation analysis are listed below: Population numbers and Density The maximum potential load should be used to give a conservative estimation. The number of people using a building or space and their distribution will greatly affect the travel and flow speeds speed of occupants. Familiarity A persons familiarity and regular use of the building and its systems may cause them to respond differently. Competent users of the building will have prior knowledge of the nearest escape routes and they may have had the opportunity to have participated in drills. Those unfamiliar with the building will rely upon the knowledge of staff and the clarity of signage available, and may be less responsive to warning systems. Distribution and Activities Distribution will impact on movement speeds and density will impact on the ability to communicate instructions. Activities people are involved in will affect their initial response. Those who are dedicated to a task within a building will not necessarily be able stop their job on activation of the alarm system. Level of Alertness The commitment of people to their activity or their interaction with others can affect their awareness. A premise which holds a sleeping risk for occupants can be expected to have a delayed response time. Physical and Mental Ability Some occupants may rely entirely on assistance, disabled; those with a hearing disability or those with a visual disability may require special means of notification. Level of Mobility Affected by the age of occupants, age can influence the ability of an individual to independently make their way along an exit route and reach a place of safety within an acceptable timescale. It may also reduce an occupants ability to withstand exposure to smoke and other harmful bi-products of fire. Social Affiliation Behaviour will be strongly influenced with the interaction between occupants. Groups of people who have a social connection (i.e. parent and child who are separated within premises at the time of the fire event) will try and regroup before making their way to an exit. The time spend undertaking such an act may increase the level of risk for these occupants. Groups of evacuees try to stay together and the slowest member of the group influences their speed. Role and Responsibility Sufficiently, well-trained and authoritative staff will shorten the pre-movement phase of an evacuation process. An effective management plan followed by all members of staff will ensure this is provided within premises. Location Can influence a persons choice of exit and the time to notification. Travel distances will be affected by location. Commitment Those who are committed to their activity will be reluctant to respond to an alarm, especially if it means their task is to be started again. Responsiveness The extent to which a person is likely to respond to alarms, those who have previous experience of emergency situations may be less likely to respond quickly as they are aware of the most appropriate action to take. The Panic Theory When people, attempting to escape from a burning building pile up at a single exit, their behaviour appears highly irrational to someone who learns after the panic that other exits were available. To the actor in the situation who does not recognise the existence of these alternatives, attempting to fight his way to the only exit available may seem a very logical choice as opposed to burning to death. (Turner and Killian 1957) The concept of panic is attributed to occupants lack of knowledge about a fires existence before a fire reaches a size where it can seriously hamper the ease in which evacuees are able to escape. This can be due to a problem with the detection and alarm system installed within premises, or the lack of information available to occupants as they try and make their way to the relevant escape routes. The theory of panic is not an easy thing to define, yet a set of definitions are presented below: A sudden and excessive feeling of alarm or fear, usually affecting a body of persons, originating in some real or supposed danger, vaguely apprehended, and leading to extravagant and injudicious efforts to secure safety. (John L. Bryan 1984) A fear-induced flight behavior which is nonrational, nonadaptive, and nonsocial, which serves to reduce the escape possibilities of the group as a whole, (Kentucky State Police, 1977). In the stress of a fire, people often act inappropriately and rarely panic or behave irrationally. Such behavior, to a large extent, is due to the fact that information initially available to people regarding the possible existence of a fire and its size and location is often ambiguous or inadequate. (Ramachandran, 1990.) Affect of Alarm on Pedestrian Movement The type of detection and alarm system in a building can greatly affect the way in which occupants despond to the emergency signal, and this is turn will affect the response time of occupants. The level of information that occupants are provided with in the early stages of evacuation can influence their decision to evacuate. It has been common practice to use traditional ringing sounders within non-domestic premises in recent years. One drawback of using this form of alarm signal is that occupants are not being provided with any informative information regarding the fire event. Evacuees could benefit from a system which would inform them of a fires location and lets them know which evacuation route is the safest in terms of their location in the building. This is a difficult system to integrate into a building as fires are extremely unreliable and information is specific to a single fire scenario. Sounders themselves are not the most informative method of warning system; they convey little information and have been proven ineffective (Bob Choppen, 2003). Voice alarm systems are largely becoming a more acceptable mode of informing occupants of a fire occurrence in modern buildings. Large premises which are designed to cater mainly for the general public will benefit greatest from a voice alarm system. Occupants are fuelled with much more information of the emergency event than in the past using traditional alarm signals. Voice messages can convey a greater deal of information to the occupants. John L Bryan concluded from his research that the use of voice alarms/public announcements with an alarm bell was the most effective way of warning occupants. Ramachandran in his review of the research on human behaviour in fires in the UK since 1969 summarized the effectiveness of alarm bells as awareness cues: The response to fire alarm bells and sounders tends to be less than optimum. There is usually skepticism as to whether the noise indicated a fire alarm and if so, is the alarm merely a system test or drill? A lack of panic is attributed to a number of factors including: Insufficient seriousness of an emergency. Acceptance of staff responsibility to direct occupants to exits. Evacuation process is complete before occupants have come in sight or contact with fire and smoke. Panic was not initiated at exit paths due to sufficient exit widths being available, thus eliminating the chance for queuing to occur, i.e. little competition for similar exits by occupants. Human Stress Model. (University coursework notes, Evacuation Systems Design model; Powerpoint Presentation namely Human Behaviour in Fire (Slide 48/51), Dr. Iain Sanderson, 2008). Evacuation Modeling Evacuation models can help engineers prove that tenable conditions will be available to occupants for the timescale required for all occupants to reach a place of safety, which an element of safety built in. The total time for occupants for occupants from the time of detection and alarm, to the time for the last occupant to reach a place of safety, is called the Required Safe Egress Time (RSET). This is traditionally compared with the time from fire ignition until tenable limits are exceeded, and conditions have reached a level where humans will be unable to continue their process of escape. This time is called the Available Safe Egress Time (ASET). As long as RSET > ASET by some factor of safety, a building is deemed to provide an adequate level of safety for all occupants to escape in an emergency situation. Pedestrian movement models have typically fallen into two categories, one category dealt independently with movement and the other tried to connect both movement and human behaviour. S. Gwynne (1999) highlights the main approaches available of computer analysis models: Computer based analysis of evacuation can be performed using one of three different approaches, namely optimization, simulation and risk assessment. Furthermore, within each approach different means of representing the enclosure, the population and the behaviour of the population are possible. Movement models can be categorised in a number of forms; Ball bearing, Optimisation, Simulation or Risk Assessment models. Ball bearing / Gaseous This example of movement model treats its subjects as inanimate objects. Sometimes referred to as environmental determinism, subjects are unthinking individuals who respond only to external stimuli, thus human behaviour it not taken into account. Occupants are assumed to begin their evacuation instantly, with no regard to the time taken for detection, alarm and pre-movement times. Factors effecting occupant movement therefore only include physical considerations of the occupants and their surroundings (i.e. crowd densities, exit widths and travel speeds). Individual occupants are merged into units and their movement treats their egress on masse (S. Gwynne, 1999). A good example of a model which employs this type of methodology is Firewind, with its WayOut tool. Optimisation This form of pedestrian movement model deals with large crowds of people at the same time. Evacuees are treated as homogeneous groups, thus there are no independent characteristics for a particular individual. People are uniformly distributed; all exits will be equally shared. One of the best examples of this form of model is EVACNET. 6.5.3 Simulation These models try and take into account not only the physical characteristics of the space, but also consider some representation of human behaviour in emergency scenarios. They attempt to produce as an output the path and decisions taken my individuals during the evacuation process. Examples of this type of model include Simulex and buildingEXODUS. 6.5.4 Risk Assessment Model These models are an attempt to identify hazards associated with the evacuation of a building, be it due to the occupants or the building, and attempt to quantify the resultant risk. An example of this type of model would be Crisp, and WayOut. 6.5.6 Enclosure Representation Enclosure representation of the geometries created within a computer models can take on two forms; fine and course networks. Enclosures are subdivided into a number of zones which are interconnected with neighbouring zones, and the characteristics of each of these affect the parameters found in each on the adjoining cells. The detail and size of each of these zones determines which category a model shall fall into. NODE ARC NODEOne or more arcs connecting 2 nodes are called a Path. (John M Watts 1987). Definition of a network model is given by John M Watts (1987), A network models is a graphical representation of routes by which objects or energy may move from one point to another. 6.5.6.1 Fine Networks Models using this method divide the entire floor space of the enclosure into a selection of shapes or nodes. The size and shape of these nodes will vary for different models. The node is connected to its neighbouring node by an arc. Paths of individuals are tracked over time. Examples of such models include Bgraf, Egress, buildngExodus, Magnetmodel, Simulex and Vegas. 6.5.6.2 Coarse Networks Models following this form of enclosure representation do not allow individual occupants to be followed independently of other within the group. Single nodes represent large spaces, such as rooms and corridors. As evacuees moved from space to space, users will be unaware of their position in each node. A coarse network does not provide information regarding person-wall, person-person and pe

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Essay on Punishment and the Prodigal Son of The Holy Bible

Punishment and the Prodigal Son    In American Society today, there exists a feeling that those who have transgressed, whether against individuals, family members, or society at large, need to be held responsible for their actions. The more severe the transgression, the more severe the punishment. It is not unheard of in these times, for example, that a parent may let his or her child spend a few nights in jail in order to "teach them a lesson". Even if the child seems to understand the severity of his or her actions, and shows regret for these actions, punishment may still be dealt out in the name of "tough love". In The Parable of the Prodigal Son, Jesus seems to suggest that punishment is unnecessary for those who have redeemed themselves.    The two sons in this story represent several easily recognizable character traits still found in people to this day. The older son is a hard working, responsible, obedient man who expects that someday his discipline and sacrifice will pay off. Although not specifically mentioned in this short parable, it can be assumed that his share of his father's... ...f they show regret. A problem with the father's solution to his wayward son, however, is that it may encourage this very type of behavior to continue in others who decide there is no consequence to their actions, as long as they repent, or pretend to repent, in the end. In this parable, it is easy to see that the prodigal son has been redeemed, and deserves compassion from his father. However, judging the salvation of an actual person is never as simple. Works Cited "The Parable of the Prodigal Son". Bible, King James Version. Luke 15:11-32.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Comparing the Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches as They Apply to th

Thesis Statement: The most differences between the idiographic and nomothetic approach are measurements and development. Introduction: In the following essay, we discuss different theoretical perspectives from Nomothetic and Idiographic approach. How they apply to both Personality (pattern of behavior and thinking) and Intelligence (thinking and behavior). Arguments for both sides are base on what psychologists generally use them as, because some might disagrees with the usage of the word nomothetic and idiographic, orientated by Kantian and Wilhelm Windelband. Outline nomothetic, idiographic approach and personality "Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his or her characteristic behavior or thought" Allport 1961 p.18 Psychologists who adopt nomothetic approach are mainly concerned with what we share with others, but differ in degree. Establishing universal laws where all populations are describe and measure on the same set of dimensions and scale, i.e., trait theory. Psychologists, who adopt idiographic approach interested in the aspect of experience over time, discover what makes each of us unique. Theoretically, they can be coherent, because the nomothetic approach also agrees with this 'uniqueness,' as it measures differences in degree. Outline intelligence Psychologists relied on statistical results because it involves vast number of people, making it reliable. Intelligence is a behavior or thinking produced by our personality; some say it is whatever intelligence measures. Intelligent theories also argue if it is a divergent or unity ability, yet some argue about even considering it as a part of personality. Personalities like intelli... ...ctors, not environment. Nomothetic approach suggests that this is because everyone is generally the same. Yet intelligence is poor when environment is poor - idiographic explain this as it stress social influence, but nomothetic would ignore this factor. Conclusion 'The choice between them depends not on which one is right, but what we wish to know' David C. Funder p.518 The two approaches are similar in what they would take into account. It is difficult to draw a clear line just on the theoretical approach. Distinction came from research procedures because it clearly demonstrates the disagreement on the origin for both intelligence and personality. It is as David said 'what we wish to know' is causing differences in what is produce in targeted experiments, it is therefore clearer to see when you look at experiments from two different approach.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Biochemistry

The first semester of the two part series covers the topics chemistry, histology, genetics and inheritance, and the integument, skeletal, muscular, digestive, and reproductive systems. General objectives: 1. To discuss a basic understanding and working knowledge of the human body. 2. To outline the concepts of homeostasis and interdependence of all body systems. 3. To provide an Introduction to the disruption of homeostasis (pathology) as contrasted with normal processes, particularly as they apply to the allied health occupations.Course learning outcomes: As part of the requirements of accreditation Course Learning Outcomes (COOL) have been developed that represent examples of capstone outcomes that each course of Anatomy and Physiology 101 needs to become skilled at and evaluated in a standardized format. The three CLOSE for this class are listed below. You will have a test on these as either a quiz during the semester or as part of the comprehensive examination. SKIN, MUSCLES, DIG ESTION 1 . Describe the typical anatomy and physiology of the Integument (skin) Including epidermal derivative, sensory receptors, and appropriate glands. . Describe the anatomy and physiology muscle contraction including the events in the excitation and contraction coupling of skeletal muscle. 3. Outline the events of the digestion of a cheeseburger including the mechanical and chemical modes of digestion and the various means of absorption within the gut for the various nutrients Included. Master (102) Recommended preparation: High school or college biology and/or chemistry are strongly recommended. Format: Classes meet two days per week. One and one half hours of theory (lecture) followed by three hours of laboratory.A. Be prepared for a short quiz every Monday that will typically cover the previous weeks' lecture material. These will start at the beginning or end of class so it will be important to be in class on time and remain for the entire period. B. During the semester ther e will be at least four midterm examinations. C. A comprehensive final examination will be given n the last day of class and is a requirement to receive a passing grade. D. Please read over the textbook and lab assignments BEFORE coming to class.Several laboratory sessions will involve the study and use of cadavers and preserved specimens. Students not wishing to work with these specimens for ethical or health concerns should contact the instructor so an alternative assignment can be determined. Attendance: If you cannot make it to class, it is your responsibility to check which assignments are due when returning back to class. Exchange telephone numbers and use the buddy system. Please do not call or e-mail for an excused absence. All absences hurt your chances of being successful in this fast paced class and the quizzes cannot be made up.If you need to contact me because of extended absence please e-mail me in this regard. Drop Policy: It is the instructor's responsibility to drop students that are a â€Å"no show'. This is accomplished prior to the census date. A â€Å"no show' is someone who never attended a single class session. In addition you will be dropped for excessive absences. Excessive absences are typically more than four class sessions in a row. Exceptions may be made depending on circumstances and the student's chances of being successful.Makeup's and late work: Quizzes cannot be made up. Labs and Tests can be made up at the discretion of the instructor in extenuating circumstances with official documentation (medical note, police report, etc. ) No tests can be made up after two weeks of the initial test date and no make-ups are given during the last two weeks of class. Extra credit: Extra credit may be given at the instructor's discretion Laboratory credit: Lab credit is based solely on the practical exam. There will be 4 racial exams and each exam is worth 10% of your grade.Blackboard material: During the semester there may be extra materia l on blackboard. Be sure to check it regularly. Grading policy: 5 Written Exams (including final) worth 10% each = 50% 10 Quizzes worth 1% each = 10% 4 Lab Practical Exams Worth 10% each = 40% The point percentage for a particular grade is as follows: â€Å"D† Grade—- â€Å"F† Grade———-less than 60% â€Å"C† Grade———– 70-79% The grade of â€Å"F† is given to a student who obtains less than 60% of the points possible in class and/or is found cheating in class.See Policy) The grade of â€Å"D† is given to those students who satisfactorily obtained at least 60% of all the points possible in class. The grade of â€Å"C† is given to the student who can assimilate the lecture and lab material and is able to obtain 70% of all the points possible in class. The grade of â€Å"B† is given to the student, who in addition to fulfilling 80% of the previous objectives, is also able to display that he or she can satisfactorily answer questions beyond those discussed in lecture material. Other sources of information include the textbook and blackboard reading recommendations.The grade of â€Å"A† is given to the student who fulfills the previous objectives and is also able to integrate information to solve novel situations thereby clearly demonstrating the concept of critical thinking. Cheating policy: Cheating is any activity that gives an unfair advantage to a particular student. These activities include but are not limited to: using notes or books on examinations of any kind, looking at or copying someone else's paper, changing graded papers for credit, not putting â€Å"late† on papers requiring that designation, or falsifying documents.If someone is caught cheating, he r she will receive an automatic zero for whatever work was being completed. A report called the â€Å"Violation: Student Code of Conduct† will be generated within 5 days of the inci dent . If a student is caught cheating a second time the student will receive an â€Å"F† in the class. This report is electronically submitted to Dean Patrick Springer. He will contact you and explain the actions decided at that point in time. I suggest you check the college catalog for the current policy regarding due process and student discipline.Cheating in a flagrant manner may also be exposed to student disciplinary action as warranted. During the test you must not have a cell phone or other electronic device. A device that is within reach and turned on during the test constitutes cheating and you will receive a zero on the test at hand and the appropriate notifications submitted. If you are assigned to a group you may not change your group designation without permission. Non-participation in a group is cheating. It is the responsibility of the group to enforce this and act as professionals. A nonparticipating needs to be informed early on and given an opportunity to c hange.As a last resort it is up to the group to inform me as early as possible where corrective action will take place. Americans with Disabilities Act: Mat. San Action College abides by the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 that prohibits federal and state agencies or programs from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities. If you have a documented disability that limits a major life activity which may have some impact on your work in this class and for which you may require accommodations, please see me or Disabled Students Programs and Services.If there is any accommodation that you require prior to being in the program please let me know and I will do my best to accommodate your needs. Safety: Safety is the most important issue in the laboratory. Always work in a safe manner. Many labs deal with sharp objects, flammable material, and toxic or infectious substances. If you are ever in doubt about a procedure, as k, never assume. Note the proper disposal of wastes and the location or the floor. All food items must be in a backpack or on top of or in the refrigerator. Kibbutz's Hot Buttons: 1 . Eating or drinking in class.Please keep your food stored in your backpack or the refrigerator in the classroom. Every day the refrigerator is cleaned out so that other course sections may have room for their food. You will lose safety percentage points if you have food or food containers on the floor or under the cabinet. 2. Not putting the microscopes away clean and with the arm facing outwards. 3. Cell phones and pagers that go off during lecture times. Testing during lecture is rude and will not be allowed. 4. Students who ask me if it is okay to leave early. If you want to leave class early you do not need my permission.This is a fundamental difference between high school and college. Also do not ask if you will miss anything. Use the buddy system. 5. Smoking on campus especially near doorways, hal lways, and near the A&P building. If you must destroy your lungs then please walk the short distance to the street sidewalk and please pick up your butts. Privacy: Students have a right to privacy. Anyone not wanting their papers to be returned in the out box can get their papers returned to them in person during the office hours directly following the class. Final comment: I wish all of you the best of earning.To learn how your own body works can be very interesting. It is unfortunate that all of these rules must be spelled out. It is a sign of the times but is still not representative of how the class functions. In large part students accommodate to the rules and procedures and the class in general runs smoothly without incidents. For those of you that have taken the time to read this syllabus you will be rewarded. The first quiz will contain questions regarding its content. In general any material that is handed out should be read and considered â€Å"testable material†.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Metapath Case Essay

Metapath was a hi-tech company providing software products for wireless carriers. It had a revenue of 22 million and was emerging as the premier company in its market space. The ultimate goal of the founder, Hansen, was to see the Metapath go IPO in two years. However, this company confronted two main obstacles for that goal: concentrated customers and fluctuant quarterly revenues. To expand his business and also solve these problems, Hansen need to again raise more money. Like most of the software companies, Metapath demands continuously money supply during the premature period of its life. The main financial strategy of Metaph was to raise several rounds of money by turning to venture capital investors: get money from them in exchange for Metapath’s preferred stock and a promise to redeem or convert to commom stock in event of IPO. It had raised $ 9 million in four rounds of financing before 1997, in which STI and Bessemer participated in the first two rounds. Unlike the fol lowing standard convertible preferred stock instruments, these first two rounds had a structure called â€Å"straight redeemable, cheap common†, which required a principal payment in the future, making the two classes of preferred stock more like debts. Therefore, by paying yearly (or quarterly) dividends and guarantying the safety of principle value to venture investors, Metapath raised its first four rounds of capital. Selling the company to CellTech could bring Metapath many advantages. First, CellTech offered an attractive price $115 million, relatively large for a premature company with revenue of 25.6 million and negative income -$1.9 million. Second, it was already an public company, which prevented the dilution of possible further financings. Third, by merging with CellTech, Metapath could achieve synergy from expertise of CellTech’s engineers, and the fully-formed marketing and domestic sales organization. However, since the merging was plan to be in stock exchange and CellTech had gone public only few months, information could be limited to value its stock price fairly. Also in the big environment of late 1990s, too much investments in high-tech companies made this industry overheated, and CellTech could be overvalued by analysts. For the VC option RSC offered, one big advantage was that the immediate cash flow of $11.75 million, which would be very helpful for Metapath’s operation. Another advantage was that it bought time for Metapath to initiate an independent IPO in the future, which had potential to worth more than CallTech offered. But it brought  concerns to Metapath as well. RSC brought up the strike term called â€Å"participating convertible preferred stock†, at which holder could not only convert from the preferred stock, but also in the event of sale, receive face value and participate in further consideration of common stock. This term could make a sale of Metapath extremely dilutive to the founders.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Descriptive Essay on Dementia Family Member Essay

Imagine if you had a dreadful disease that took away your memory and you could no longer remember familiar people, places or events. This is what is happening to my Grandma. She has been diagnosed with vascular dementia and it has been detrimental to her life and her mind, and I hate to think about what it will do to her in the future. She is 80 years old and is still able to live alone, however her son lives across the road from her. Other than having dementia, she is a healthy person. She has always been a caring and loving person that has always taken care of others. Dementia has drastically changed her life. She has always been very caring and supportive toward all of her family. She babysat all 4 of her grandchildren when we were younger. She would always cook the best eggs and homemade biscuits for breakfast. We would look forward to her breakfast every day. She picked all of us up from school almost every day. Now she does not hardly drive anymore for fear she might get lost because she doesn’t remember how to get to all the places she used to could because of her disease. She would always cook her delicious fried chicken, rice and a scrumptious homemade chocolate cake for every family member’s birthdays. It breaks my heart to think that now she does not even remember our birthdays. Read Also:  Descriptive Essay Topics for High School Students Dementia is detrimental to her mind. Our family did not realize anything was wrong, until one day she went to her doctor, but could not find his office. She said she stopped at a couple offices, but could not find the right one. Luckily she made it back home. She sometimes calls me by my cousin’s name and cannot remember the names of people that she used to know well. She used to also keep books for my Granddad’s fertilizer business, but now she is no longer able to even balance her check book. She misplaces items, such as her wallet, car keys, and checkbook, daily. I am afraid to imagine how this disease will slowly destroy my grandma as it continues to progress. She is taking medication to slow down the progression of the disease, but there is no cure for dementia. Right now she is in the  mild stage of dementia. Our family can see a few symptoms of the moderate stages of dementia appearing and are dreading the day that we will start noticing the severe stages. When that time comes she will not be able to care for herself and will need someone there 24 hours a day. Dementia is hard on grandma, but it seems to be harder on our family. Dementia has gradually crept into her life over the past year. It has changed the way she has always lived and is gradually taking her memory. She does still make her delicious eggs and homemade biscuits every morning. The future doesn’t look good, but she takes it one day at the time. It is a shame how a disease can take the mind of an otherwise healthy person. 1. Your essay must be at least 5 paragraphs long, but may be more. 2. Each paragraph must have 5 well-developed sentences, but may have more. 3. Your essay must have an introduction with an easily identifiable, developed thesis with three valid points. 4. Your essay must have three, developed body paragraphs, each expressing one of the points from your thesis. 5. Each body paragraph must stick to one and only one point from the thesis. 6. Your essay must use standard grammar. 7. Your essay must be interesting, use real-life examples, and have good style and tone. 8. Your essay must be descriptive, show rather than tell, and engage the senses. 9. Your essay must be organized in a meaningful way. 10. Your essay must have a logical conclusion.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

On Pathography

Why do humans write them? Robert Maunder, a physicists and professor, illustrates an essay called, â€Å"On Photography,† that presents meta-commentary stories In Body & Soul. The genre of literature called, â€Å"photography,† describes his essay and Interest about being sick. Maunder establishes terms such as battle, triumph and survivor to reflect on the narratives of Illness. He describes his essay through elements of critical thinking by clarity, evidence of support and assumptions underlying the argument. As a result, Robert Maunder clearly manifest his main proposal successfully.Maunder expresses the clarity of his main argument of photography through his beliefs. For several of patients, to triumph over sickness, signifies an important part of the experience. The best photographers, in Maunders eyes, are those â€Å"like the best novels and poems, {he} suppose, describe life with subtlety contradiction, emotion, depth, beauty and banality. But it helps to read the best† (Maunder, 2004). Sometimes, the most efficient teaching lad Is to analyze and read written accounts of one's aspect from sickness or facing death as It can receive empathy towards one another.Patients who are diagnosed with a terminal Illness can evoke fear, depression and anger. However, Maunder also believes that the best photographers are those â€Å"who are curious and unashamed enough to write about what illness has done to their minds and preferences and relationships† (Maunder, 2004). It indicates that the existential truth is a familiar Indus of reflection for a sick writer, which the author compares to personal victory. The capability of understanding and connecting tit one and another is faint. Maunder argues how â€Å"a critically ill person needs above all is to be understood.Dying is a misunderstanding that you have to get straightened out before you go† (Maunder, 2004). Sickness cannot be acknowledged for understanding, until your friends and family, with love, recognize the absolute knowledge of your chronic disease. Thus, the clarity of his main argument Is pushed by his beliefs. He contributes his mall argument through personal observations, reflection, and anecdotes, as he not only try to convince the reader, but also himself. Maunder uses personal observation with his patients and students by reading photographers of other authors.He begins with Robert Mason Lee's photography, of his pain of Chronic disease, where his audience was conveyed by â€Å"the experience of that particular pain very well to someone who has never felt it. † (Maunder, 2004). He explains how a powerful writer has the unique ability to express their connections to feelings and awaken our senses. These senses are within others and us, where it results to think in synthesizing ways. Maunder also uses personal, short and amusing vents to account his message across.For example, he has read â€Å"few other essays where the author Is so c ompletely alive and present In the text, in all his narcissistic, gleeful, annoying, contemplative splendor,† such as Anatoly Broad (Maunder, 2004). Board's wrote a photography called, â€Å"Intoxicated by My Illness,† as he was dying of prostate cancer. This photography captivated Maunder eye's due to his bright and insightful personality, where did not take sickness as a serious event, but by convinced that â€Å"illness is a test of relationship, of values, and of faith-but as Job caches us, it is a test that, once passed, continues nonetheless† (Maunder, 2004).Illness and life are similar. However, illness can render as the greatest destroyer of denial where it has the power to reach a person's soul negatively. These personal experiences assist Maunders main argument. Maunder also apply his assumptions to propel his argument forward. He postulates how humans view their morality is recognized. He believes how â€Å"the battle metaphor of destruction is not ap propriate in this instance either. What serious illness does to denial is make it obvious† (Maunder, 004).Young children, teenagers and adults, are almost always solipsistic, that it affects their worldview. A sickness is Just to overcome, whereas older people, it becomes more of a challenge because they dwell on it, which can consume them. As a result, it changes their mindsets for the worst. Maunder continues his assumptions for how the society views on morality by providing the idea that one can truly live when they are faced with a death crisis. He brings â€Å"another version of the hope for redemption through illness† (Maunder, 2004).Maunder imagines his hopes for others who have suffered through illnesses, where it might illuminate certain situations and help gain perspective. For a while, Maunder takes a step back from writing illness narratives and explores into the genre of literature, consisting of stories regarding the aspects of sick patients. He argues tha t â€Å"triumphant battles, how much they actually do convey an important part of the experience of being sick for many people,† is an expectation (Maunder, 2004). Humans, who struggle with chronic illness(s), are the toughest of the tough.They are able to continually face the struggles of life and battle a debilitating disease than those who appear to live with it. Consequently, Maunder takes granted for people who lack of the knowledge of being sick to drive his topic ahead. In summary, Robert Maunder proves his main idea thoroughly and distinctly. He uses clarity, evidence for support and assumptions to underlie the principle of the argument. Maunder narrates photographers about being sick and communicates an extraordinary manner to an incomprehensible audience who Just needs to understand.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Paraphrase the paper that i will upload Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Paraphrase the paper that i will upload - Essay Example of knowledge on the world, enhance their social responsibility sense in addition to learning about the pragmatic and analytical skills required for the up and coming events they will encounter in the course of their lives. College teaches one to respect in diversity; something that cannot be learned by studying books, also called experiential learning.Being surrounded by individuals from various countries results in new perspectives and issues,and assists widen the various types of experiences shared.In addition;it also welcomes stereotypes to rethink issues associated with race,ethnicity and politics. College assists in obtaining wider knowledge of the broader world.It is only in college where courses associated with society,history and science are taken;lesons that according to Aydrey Osler are prerequisites for an individual to discover new interests or acquire fresh insights.Thus,for instance,studying social sciences provides individuals with a say in shaping their future,assists inunderstanding finance,plays a part in the health and wellness ,assisting in making society safer,improving the quality of education for future generations in addition to helping students in understanding democracy better. Students should be taught knowledge about democracy and democratic institutions and provided opportunities to practice democracy† (Osler 74). Attending college assists in development of a sense of social responsibility. . â€Å"Contributing to a larger community involves recognizing and acting upon one’s responsibility for the general welfare of others in the larger community within and beyond the college campus† (Reason, Ryder, Kee 18).For instance, participating in college campaigns teaches team spirit, leadership and dedication. Thus, we require more socially responsible people in the current world capable of thinking about the community as well as other people’s welfare. People seem to think of society as an agency whose core function is resolution